Roman tartar [edit ]
The Romans similarly used pebbles ( in Latin : calculi “ short stones ”, whence English calculate ). addition is aboveboard, and relatively efficient algorithm for multiplication and division were known.
Reading: Jeton – Wikipedia
Arabic numerals [edit ]
As Arabic numerals and the zero came into manipulation, “ pen reckoning ” gradually displaced “ counter cast ” as the coarse account method. Jetons for calculation were normally used in Europe from about 1200 to 1700, [ 1 ] and remained in occasional use into the early nineteenth century .
Middle Ages [edit ]
From the late thirteenth century to the end of the fourteenth century jetons were produced in England, like in blueprint to contemporary edwardian pennies. Although they were made of administration they were often pierced or indented at the center to avoid them being plated with silver and passed off as real ash grey coins. By the middle of the fourteenth hundred english jetons were being produced in a larger size, similar to the fourpence. Throughout the fifteenth century contest from France and the broken Countries ended jeton fabrication in England, but not for long. Nuremberg jeton masters initially started by copying counters of their european neighbours, but by the mid sixteenth hundred they gained a monopoly by mass-produce cheaper jetons for commercial habit. Later – “ rejoinder draw ” being disused – production shifted to jetons for use in games and toys, sometimes copying more or less celebrated jetons with a political background. Mints in the gloomy Countries in the former Middle Ages in general produced the counters for official bookkeeping. Most of them show the effigy of the ruler within a flattering textbook and on the inverse the ruler ‘s escutcheon and the name or city of the report agency .
- Nuremberg, hundred 1553, moneychanger, Ø 28 millimeter
During the Dutch Revolt ( 1568–1609 ) this design changed and by both parties, the North in front, about 2,000 different, largely political, jetons ( dutch : Rekenpenning ) were minted depicting the victories, ideals and aims. specifically in the concluding stern of the sixteenth century, where “ Geuzen ” or “ beggars ” made important military contributions to the dutch side and bookkeeping was already done without counters, the production in the North was just for propaganda. The mints and treasuries of the large estates in Central Europe used their own jetons and then had a count of them struck in gold and silver as New Year gifts for their employees, who in turn commissioned jetons with their own mottoes and coats-of-arms. In the sixteenth hundred the Czech Royal Treasury bought between two and three thousand pieces at the beginning of each year .
- Dordrecht 1588, invincible Armada destroy, Ø 30 millimeter
Modern manipulation [edit ]
Monetary manipulation [edit ]
In the twenty-first hundred jetons continue to be used in some countries as substitutes for coins in coin-operated public telephones or vending machines, because automatic evaluation of coins by machines is unreliable or impossible for respective reasons. They are normally made of metal or hard plastic and are by and large called tokens in english-speaking countries. In german the discussion Jeton refers specifically to casino tokens. In polish the parole żeton, pronounced similarly to French jeton, refers both to tokens used in vending machines, phones etc. and to those used in casinos. The word жетон has the same habit in russian, as does the parole jeton in romanian and žetoon in estonian. however in Hungary the word zseton is ( reasonably dated ) slang for money, peculiarly coins. fictile jetons used to be used for paying the fare for the Star Ferry in Hong Kong .
leisure use [edit ]
Coloured wooden counters of the type used in circuit board games. The jetons are the round counters apart from their monetary [ 2 ] use in casinos, jetons are used in poster games, peculiarly in France but besides in Denmark. They are traditionally made of forest of unlike shapes and sizes to represent different values such as 1, 5, 10, 50 or 100 points. For model, in traditional french games, jetons are round and normally worth 1 unit ; fiches are long and orthogonal in condition and may be worth 10 to 20 jetons ; contrats are the short rectangular counters and may be deserving, say, 100 units. The jetons are besides stained or coloured sol that each actor can have his or her own color. This facilitates scoring because players do not need to start with precisely the like issue of counters. Nowadays formative jetons are a bum alternative. Games that typically use jetons include Nain Jaune, Belote, Piquet, Ombre, Mistigri, Danish Tarok and Vira. A consecrated box called virapulla is used to contain Vira jetons. [ 1 ]
other uses [edit ]
In France and other countries a jeton is besides a token come of money paid to members of a club or a legislative chamber each time they are present in a meeting .
References [edit ]
- Menninger, Karl W. (1969). Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13040-8.
- Bert, van Beek (1986). “Jetons: Their Use and History”. Perspectives in Numismatics. Chicago Coin Club .
- Rouyer, Jules; Eugène Frédéric Ferdinand Hucher; Michel Pastoureau (1982). Histoire du jeton au Moyen âge.
- Kleisner, Tomáš; Zuzana Holečková (2006). Coins and Medals of the Last Rosenbergs. Prague: National Museum. ISBN 80-7036-206-5.