history [edit ]
Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece [edit ]
Despite the fact that the first italian neologism systems were used in the Magna Graecia and Etruscan refinement, the Romans introduced a widespread currentness throughout Italy. Unlike most advanced coins, Roman coins had intrinsic value. While they contained precious metals, the respect of a coin was higher than its valued metal contented, so they were not bullion. Estimates of their measure range from 1.6 to 2.85 times their metal subject, thought to equal the purchasing baron of 10 advanced british Pound Sterling ( US $ 15 ) at the beginning of the Roman Empire to around 18 Pound Sterling ( US $ 29 ) by its end ( comparing bread, wine and kernel prices ) and, over the lapp period, around one to three days ‘ pay for a Legionnaire. [ 2 ]
Middle Ages and Renaissance [edit ]
guilder [edit ]
The guilder was struck from 1252 to 1523 with no significant exchange in its design or alloy content standard. It had 54 grains of amber ( 3.5g ). The “ fiorino d’oro ” of the Republic of Florence was the inaugural european aureate coin struck in sufficient quantities to play a significant commercial role since the seventh hundred. As many Florentine banks were international supercompanies with branches across Europe, the guilder promptly became the dominant allele deal coin of Europe for boastfully scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark ( a weight unit unit equal to eight troy ounces ).
In the fourteenth hundred, one hundred and fifty dollar bill european states and local anesthetic coin issuing authorities made their own copies of the guilder. The most important of these was the hungarian forint because the Kingdom of Hungary was a major generator of gold mined in Europe ( until the New World began to contribute to the provide in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the gold used in Europe came from Africa ) .
early mod history [edit ]
The early on modern italian coins were very similar in stylus to French francs, specially in decimals, since it was ruled by the country in the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. They corresponded to a value of 0.29 grams of amber or 4.5 grams of silver. [ 3 ]
Papal States scudo [edit ]
The Papal States scudo was the neologism system used in the Papal States until 1866. between 1798 and 1799, the revolutionist french forces established the Roman Republic, which issued coins denominated in baiocco and scudo. In addition, the states of Ancona, Civitavecchia, Clitunno, Foligno, Gubbio, Pergola and Perugia changed their coinage system to that of the Roman Republic. In 1808, the Papal States were annexed by France, and french francs circulated as the official coins. When the Pope ‘s assurance was restored in 1814, the scudo was restored as the currentness. however, the coinage of the individual states was not resumed. In 1849, another Roman Republic was established which issued coins centrally and in Ancona. In 1866, the scudo was replaced by the lira, equivalent to the italian lira. The commute rate used was 5.375 lire = 1 scudo. [ 4 ]
Parman lira [edit ]
Half Parman lira The Parman lira was Parma ‘s official currentness before 1802, and subsequently revived from 1815 to 1859. The Duchy of Parma had its own neologism system until it was made a separate of France in 1802. This lira was subdivided into 20 soldi ( singular : soldo ), each of 12 denari ( singular : denaro ), with the sesino worth 6 denari and the ducato was worth 7 lire. The currency was replaced by the french franc. After the re-establishment of Parman independence, the Parman currency system was introduced in 1815. besides called the lira, it was subdivided into 20 soldi or 100 centesimi. however, this lira was adequate to the french franc and the sardinian lira, and it circulated alongside the latter. It weighed 5 grams, and had a purity of 9/10 of ash grey. Since 1861, Parma has used the equivalent italian lira .
Neapolitan piastra [edit ]
neapolitan 120 grana ( 1 piastra ) coin The Neapolitan piastra was the most common silver mint of the Kingdom of Naples. In ordering to distinguish it from the piastra issued on the island of Sicily, it is referred to as the “ Neapolitan piastra ” as opposed to the “ sicilian piastra “. These two piastra were equal but were subdivided differently. The Neapolitan piastra was divided into 120 grana ( curious : grano ), each of 2 tornesi ( singular : tornese ) or 12 cavalli ( singular : cavallo ). There were besides the carlino worth 10 grana and the ducato deserving 100 grana .
Two Sicilies piastra [edit ]
The Two Sicilies piastra was the neologism system or currentness of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies between 1815 and 1860. It was subdivided into 120 grana ( singular : grano ), each of 2 tornesi ( curious : tornese ). Accounts were kept in ducato, worth 100 grana. [ 5 ]
sardinian lira [edit ]
sardinian 1 lira ( 1828 ) The sardinian lira was the currentness of the Kingdom of Sardinia between 1816 and 1861. It was subdivided into 100 centesimi ( singular centesimo ) and was equal in value to the french franc, which had replaced the Piedmontese and Sardinian scudos by 1799. It was replaced at par by the italian lira .
Tuscan fiorino [edit ]
The Tuscan fiorino was the currency of Tuscany between 1826 and 1859. It was subdivided into 100 quattrini ( singular : quattrino ), with an extra denomination called the paolo, worth 40 quattrini, in circulation .
Lombardy-Venetia guilder [edit ]
The Lombardy-Venetia florins were the coins of Lombardy-Venetia ( reduced to the exclusive Venetia three years before ) between 1862 and 1866. It replaced the pound at a rate of 1 florin = 3 pounds. The guilder was equivalent to the Austro-Hungarian guilder ( besides called the guilder ). Although it was subdivided into 100 soldi preferably than 100 Kreuzer, austrian coins circulated in Venetia. The only coins issued specifically for Venetia were copper ½ and 1 soldo pieces .
modern menstruation ( Kingdom and Republic of Italy ) [edit ]
The lira was made the official currentness of Italy in 1861 after the italian union, however stopped being used in 2002. The euro neologism system entered circulation in Italy in 2002 and is presently the official currency .
lira [edit ]
Upon the universe of the Kingdom of Italy under Vittorio Emanuele II ( 1861 ), a unite lira was established, at 4.5 grams of silver medal or 290.322 milligrams of gold. This was a direct continuance of the sardinian lira. other currencies replaced by the italian lira included the Lombardy-Venetia syrian pound, the Two Sicilies piastra, the Tuscan fiorino, the Papal States scudo and the Parman lira. In 1865, Italy formed function of the Latin Monetary Union in which the lira was set as peer to, among others, the french, belgian and Swiss francs : in fact, until the insertion of the euro in 2002, people speaking the Gallo-Italic dialects in north-western Italy normally called “franc” the lira. [ 6 ] World War I broke the Latin Monetary Union and resulted in prices rising severalfold in Italy. inflation was curbed slightly by Mussolini, who, on 18 August 1926, declared that the exchange rate between lira and pound would be £1 = 90 lire—the alleged Quota 90, although the free exchange rate had been close to 140–150 lire per pound. In 1927, the lira was pegged to the U.S. dollar at a rate of 1 dollar = 19 lire. This rate lasted until 1934, with a discriminate “ tourist ” rate of US $ 1 = 24.89 lire being established in 1936. In 1939, the “ official ” rate was 19.8 lire. After the Allied invasion of Italy, an switch over rate was set at US $ 1 = 120 lire ( 1 british impound = 480 lire ) in June 1943, reduced to 100 lire the following month. In German-occupied areas, the exchange rate was set at 1 Reichsmark = 10 lire. After the war, the Roman mint first issued the first gear 1, 2, 5 and 10 lira coins ( 6 September 1946 ). They were officially set up on 21 December of the lapp year and were used up to 1953–4. [ 7 ] The value of the lira fluctuated, before Italy set a peg of US $ 1 = 575 lire within the Bretton Woods System in November 1947. Following the devaluation of the ram, Italy devalued to US $ 1 = 625 lire on 21 September 1949. This rate was maintained until the end of the Bretton Woods System in the early 1970s. several episodes of high inflation followed until the lira was replaced by the euro. The lira was the official unit of measurement of currency in Italy until 1 January 1999, when it was replaced by the euro ( euro coins and notes were not introduced until 2002 ). Old lira denominated currentness ceased to be legal tender on 28 February 2002. The conversion rate is 1,936.27 lira to the euro. [ 8 ] All lira banknotes in habit immediately before the presentation of the euro, as all post WW2 coins, were still exchangeable for euros in all branches of the Bank of Italy until 29 February 2012 .
The euro formally began circulating in Italy on 1 January 2002 ( even though the creation of italian lira coins was suspended in 1999 ). [ 7 ] Italian euro coins have a design singular to each appellation, though there are many themes of works by one of the most celebrated and celebrated italian artists and painters. Each coin is designed by a different graphic designer, from the 1 penny to the 2 euro mint they are : Eugenio Driutti, Luciana De Simoni, Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini, Claudia Momoni, Maria Angela Cassol, Roberto Mauri, Laura Cretara and Maria Carmela Colaneri. All design feature the 12 stars of the EU, the class of imprint, the overlapping letters “ RI ” for Repubblica Italiana ( Italian Republic ) and the letter R for Rome. [ 9 ] There are no italian euro coins dated earlier than 2002, tied though they were surely minted early, as they were beginning distributed to the populace in December 2001 .