Trang chủ » blog » Silver – Wikipedia

Silver – Wikipedia

Chemical element with atomic count 47
This article is about the chemical chemical element. For the use of silver medal as a medication, see medical uses of ash grey. For other uses, see Silver ( disambiguation )
Chemical element, symbol Ag and atomic issue 47

Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag ( from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European h₂erǵ : “ glazed ” or “ whiten ” ) and atomic number 47. A easy, whiten, lustrous conversion metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conduction, thermal conduction, and reflectiveness of any metal. [ 4 ] The metallic is found in the Earth ‘s crust in the arrant, free elemental mannequin ( “ native silver medal ” ), as an debase with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a by-product of copper, gold, leash, and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metallic element. Silver metallic is used in many bullion coins, sometimes aboard aureate : [ 5 ] while it is more abundant than aureate, it is much less abundant as a native metal. [ 6 ] Its purity is typically measured on a per-mille basis ; a 94 % -pure debase is described as “ 0.940 very well ”. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, eloquent has had an enduring role in most human cultures. other than in currency and as an investment average ( coins and bullion ), silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, jewelry, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils ( hence the term “ silverware “ ), in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialize mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stain glaze, and in specialized confectionery. Its compounds are used in photographic and x-ray film. Dilute solutions of eloquent nitrate and early flatware compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides ( oligodynamic effect ), added to bandages, wound-dressings, catheters, and other medical instruments .


[7] Silver is highly ductile, and can be drawn into a wire one atom wide. Silver is exchangeable in its physical and chemical properties to its two erect neighbours in group 11 of the periodic mesa : copper, and amber. Its 47 electrons are arranged in the shape [ Kr ] 4d105s1, similarly to bull ( [ Ar ] 3d104s1 ) and gold ( [ Xe ] 4f145d106s1 ) ; group 11 is one of the few groups in the d-block which has a completely consistent fix of electron configurations. [ 8 ] This classifiable electron shape, with a unmarried electron in the highest occupy randomness subshell over a filled five hundred subshell, accounts for many of the curious properties of metallic silver. [ 9 ] Silver is a relatively soft and highly ductile and ductile transition metallic, though it is slenderly less ductile than aureate. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination act 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized, similarly to copper and gold. [ 10 ] Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in eloquent are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak. This observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. [ 11 ] Silver has a brainy, white, metallic luster that can take a gamey polish, [ 12 ] and which is thus characteristic that the name of the metallic element itself has become a color name. [ 9 ] Unlike bull and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled five hundred set to the s-p conduction band in silver is big enough ( around 385 kJ/mol ) that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet ; therefore argent is not a color metallic. [ 9 ] Protected silver medal has greater ocular coefficient of reflection than aluminum at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nanometer. [ 13 ] At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver ‘s reflectiveness is subscript to that of aluminum and drops to zero near 310 nm. [ 14 ] very high electrical and thermal conduction are common to the elements in group 11, because their single second electron is release and does not interact with the filled vitamin d subshell, as such interactions ( which occur in the preceding transition metals ) lower electron mobility. [ 15 ] The thermal conduction of silver is among the highest of all materials, although the thermal conduction of carbon ( in the baseball diamond allotrope ) and superfluid helium-4 are higher. [ 8 ] The electrical conduction of ash grey is the highest of all metals, greater even than copper. Silver besides has the lowest contact underground of any metallic element. [ 8 ] Silver is rarely used for its electrical conduction, due to its high cost, although an exception is in radio-frequency engineering, particularly at VHF and higher frequencies where flatware plating improves electrical conduction because those currents tend to flow on the coat of conductors rather than through the department of the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of flatware were used for the electromagnets in calutrons for enriching uranium, chiefly because of the wartime dearth of copper. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] Silver promptly forms alloys with copper, gold, and zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with humble zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the flatware is largely unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron assiduity foster leads to body-centred cubic ( electron concentration 1.5 ), complex cubic ( 1.615 ), and hexangular close-packed phases ( 1.75 ). [ 10 ]


naturally occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being slenderly more abundant ( 51.839 % natural abundance ). This about equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The nuclear system of weights is 107.8682 ( 2 ) uranium ; [ 19 ] [ 20 ] this value is very important because of the importance of silver compounds, particularly halides, in hydrometric analysis. [ 19 ] Both isotopes of flatware are produced in stars via the s-process ( decelerate neutron capture ), equally well as in supernova via the r-process ( rapid neutron capture ). [ 21 ] twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most static being 105Ag with a half life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half life of 7.45 days, and 112Ag with a half life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg ( t 1/2 = 418 years ), 110mAg ( t 1/2 = 249.79 days ) and 106mAg ( t 1/2 = 8.28 days ). All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, and the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. [ 22 ] Isotopes of silver crop in relative nuclear mass from 92.950 u ( 93Ag ) to 129.950 u ( 130Ag ) ; [ 23 ] the primary decay modality before the most abundant stable isotope, 107Ag, is electron capture and the primary manner after is beta decay. The primary decay products before 107Ag are palladium ( element 46 ) isotopes, and the primary coil products after are cadmium ( component 48 ) isotopes. [ 22 ] The palladium isotope 107Pd decays by beta emission to 107Ag with a half life of 6.5 million years. Iron meteorites are the only objects with a high-enough palladium-to-silver proportion to yield measurable variations in 107Ag abundance. Radiogenic 107Ag was first base discovered in the Santa Clara meteorite in 1978. [ 24 ] 107Pd–107Ag correlations observed in bodies that have clearly been melted since the accretion of the Solar System must reflect the presence of mentally ill nuclides in the early solar System. [ 25 ]


Oxidation states and stereochemistries of silver[26]
Stereochemistry Representative
0 (d10s1) 3 Planar Ag(CO)3
1 (d10) 2 Linear [Ag(CN)2]−
3 Trigonal planar AgI(PEt2Ar)2
4 Tetrahedral [Ag(diars)2]+
6 Octahedral AgF, AgCl, AgBr
2 (d9) 4 Square planar [Ag(py)4]2+
3 (d8) 4 Square planar [AgF4]−
6 Octahedral [AgF6]3−

Silver is a quite unreactive metal. This is because its meet 4d blast is not very effective in shielding the electrostatic forces of attraction from the nucleus to the outermost 5s electron, and therefore argent is near the penetrate of the electrochemical series ( E 0 ( Ag+/Ag ) = +0.799 V ). [ 9 ] In group 11, silver has the lowest first gear ionization energy ( showing the imbalance of the 5s orbital ), but has higher second and third ionization energies than copper and gold ( showing the constancy of the 4d orbitals ), therefore that the chemistry of silver is predominantly that of the +1 oxidation state, reflecting the increasingly limited range of oxidation states along the passage series as the d-orbitals fill and stabilize. [ 27 ] Unlike copper, for which the larger hydration energy of Cu2+ as compared to Cu+ is the reason why the former is the more stable in aqueous solution and solids despite lacking the stable fill up d-subshell of the latter, with silver this impression is swamped by its larger second ionization energy. Hence, Ag+ is the stable species in aqueous solution and solids, with Ag2+ being much less stable as it oxidizes body of water. [ 27 ] Most silver compounds have significant covalent character due to the small size and high foremost ionization energy ( 730.8 kJ/mol ) of silver. [ 9 ] Furthermore, eloquent ‘s Pauling electronegativity of 1.93 is higher than that of lead ( 1.87 ), and its electron affinity of 125.6 kJ/mol is much higher than that of hydrogen ( 72.8 kJ/mol ) and not much less than that of oxygen ( 141.0 kJ/mol ). [ 28 ] Due to its full d-subshell, ash grey in its main +1 oxidation submit exhibits relatively few properties of the transition metals proper from groups 4 to 10, forming rather unstable organometallic compounds, forming linear complexes showing very humble coordination numbers like 2, and forming an amphoteric oxide [ 29 ] arsenic good as Zintl phases like the post-transition metals. [ 30 ] Unlike the preceding transition metals, the +1 oxidation department of state of silver is stable even in the absence of π-acceptor ligands. [ 27 ] silver does not react with vent, even at red inflame, and thus was considered by alchemists as a noble metal, along with aureate. Its responsiveness is average between that of copper ( which forms copper ( I ) oxide when heated in tune to red heat ) and gold. Like copper, silver medal reacts with sulfur and its compounds ; in their presence, silver tarnishes in publicize to form the black silver sulfide ( copper forms the fleeceable sulfate rather, while gold does not react ). Unlike copper, argent will not react with the halogens, with the exception of fluorine natural gas, with which it forms the difluoride. While silver is not attacked by non-oxidizing acids, the metal dissolves promptly in hot concentrate sulphuric acid, ampere well as diluted or concentrated azotic acid. In the presence of tune, and particularly in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, argent dissolves promptly in aqueous solutions of nitrile. [ 26 ] The three main forms of deterioration in historical silver artifacts are tarnishing, formation of silver chloride due to long-run submersion in salt water, equally well as reaction with nitrate ions or oxygen. clean silver chloride is pale yellow, becoming purple on exposure to light ; it projects slenderly from the surface of the artifact or coin. The precipitation of copper in ancient ash grey can be used to date artifacts, as bull is closely always a component of ash grey alloys. [ 31 ] Silver metallic element is attacked by strong oxidizers such as potassium permanganate ( KMnO
4 ) and potassium bichromate ( K
7 ), and in the presence of potassium bromide ( KBr ). These compounds are used in photography to bleach silver images, converting them to silver bromide that can either be fixed with thiosulfate or redeveloped to intensify the original image. Silver forms cyanide complexes ( silver nitrile ) that are soluble in water system in the bearing of an surfeit of cyanide ions. Silver cyanide solutions are used in electroplating of silver. [ 32 ] The common oxidation states of silver are ( in rate of coarseness ) : +1 ( the most static state ; for example, ash grey nitrate, AgNO3 ) ; +2 ( highly oxidising ; for exercise, silver medal ( II ) fluoride, AgF2 ) ; and even very rarely +3 ( extreme oxidize ; for model, potassium tetrafluoroargentate ( III ), KAgF4 ). [ 33 ] The +3 state requires very solid oxidising agents to attain, such as fluorine or peroxodisulfate, and some silver ( III ) compounds react with atmospheric moisture and attack glass. [ 34 ] indeed, flatware ( III ) fluoride is normally obtained by reacting argent or silver monofluoride with the strongest know oxidise agent, krypton difluoride. [ 35 ]


Oxides and chalcogenides

Silver ( I ) sulfide Silver and amber have rather low chemical affinities for oxygen, lower than bull, and it is therefore expected that eloquent oxides are thermally quite mentally ill. soluble silver medal ( I ) salts precipitate brown silver ( I ) oxide, Ag2O, upon the summation of base. ( The hydroxide AgOH exists merely in solution ; otherwise it spontaneously decomposes to the oxide. ) Silver ( I ) oxide is very easily reduced to metallic silver medal, and decomposes to silver and oxygen above 160 °C. [ 36 ] This and other ash grey ( I ) compounds may be oxidized by the hard oxidise agent peroxodisulfate to black AgO, a blend argent ( I, III ) oxide of rule AgIAgIIIO2. Some other assorted oxides with silver in non-integral oxidation states, namely Ag2O3 and Ag3O4, are besides known, as is Ag3O which behaves as a metallic conductor. [ 36 ] Silver ( I ) sulfide, Ag2S, is very promptly formed from its constituent elements and is the causal agent of the black tarnish on some old silver objects. It may besides be formed from the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with argent metallic or aqueous Ag+ ions. many non-stoichiometric selenides and tellurides are known ; in finical, AgTe~3 is a low-temperature superconductor. [ 36 ]


The only know dihalide of silver is the difluoride, AgF2, which can be obtained from the elements under inflame. A strong even thermally stable and consequently safe fluorinating agent, silver ( II ) fluoride is frequently used to synthesize hydrofluorocarbons. [ 37 ] In stark contrast to this, all four silver ( I ) halides are known. The fluoride, chloride, and platitude have the sodium chloride social organization, but the iodide has three known stable forms at different temperatures ; that at room temperature is the cubic zinc zinc blende structure. They can all be obtained by the calculate reaction of their respective elements. [ 37 ] As the halogen group is descended, the argent halide gains more and more covalent character, solvability decreases, and the coloring material changes from the egg white chloride to the scandalmongering iodide as the energy required for ligand-metal charge transplant ( X−Ag+ → XAg ) decreases. [ 37 ] The fluoride is anomalous, as the fluoride ion is so small that it has a considerable solvation energy and hence is highly water-soluble and form di- and tetrahydrates. [ 37 ] The early three eloquent halides are highly insoluble in aqueous solutions and are very normally used in hydrometric analytic methods. [ 19 ] All four are light-sensitive ( though the monofluoride is so only to ultraviolet light ), specially the platitude and iodide which photodecompose to silver metal, and thus were used in traditional photography. [ 37 ] The chemical reaction involved is : [ 38 ]

X− + → X + e− (excitation of the halide ion, which gives up its extra electron into the conduction band)
Ag+ + e− → Ag (liberation of a silver ion, which gains an electron to become a silver atom)

The procedure is not reversible because the silver atom liberated is typically found at a quartz glass defect or an impurity site, so that the electron ‘s department of energy is lowered enough that it is “ trap ”. [ 38 ]

other inorganic compounds

Silver crystals forming on a copper open in a silver nitrate solution. Video by Maxim Bilovitskiy Crystals of eloquent nitrate White argent nitrate, AgNO3, is a versatile harbinger to many early silver medal compounds, specially the halides, and is much less sensitive to light. It was once called lunar caustic because ash grey was called luna by the ancient alchemists, who believed that silver was associated with the Moon. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] It is much used for hydrometric analysis, exploiting the insolubility of the heavier ash grey halides which it is a common precursor to. [ 19 ] Silver nitrate is used in many ways in organic synthesis, e.g. for deprotection and oxidations. Ag+ binds alkenes reversibly, and silver nitrate has been used to separate mixtures of alkenes by selective preoccupation. The resulting adduct can be decomposed with ammonia to release the complimentary alkene. [ 41 ] yellow silver carbonate, Ag2CO3 can be easily prepared by reacting aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate with a insufficiency of silver medal nitrate. [ 42 ] Its principal use is for the production of silver powderize for use in microelectronics. It is reduced with formaldehyde, producing silver release of alkali metals : [ 43 ]

Ag2CO3 + CH2O → 2 Ag + 2 CO2 + H2

Silver carbonate is besides used as a reagent in organic deduction such as the Koenigs-Knorr reaction. In the Fétizon oxidation, silver carbonate on celite acts as an oxidising agent to form lactones from diols. It is besides employed to convert alkyl bromides into alcohols. [ 42 ] Silver fulminate, AgCNO, a mighty, touch-sensitive explosive used in percussion caps, is made by reaction of eloquent metallic with azotic acid in the presence of ethyl alcohol. other perilously explosive silver compounds are ash grey azide, AgN3, formed by chemical reaction of flatware nitrate with sodium azide, [ 44 ] and silver acetylide, Ag2C2, formed when silver reacts with acetylene natural gas in ammonia solution. [ 27 ] In its most characteristic reaction, silver azide decomposes explosively, releasing nitrogen natural gas : given the photosensitivity of silver salts, this behavior may be induced by shining a light on its crystals. [ 27 ]

2 AgN


(s) → 3 N


(g) + 2 Ag (s)

coordination compounds

3)2]+ structure of the diamminesilver ( I ) complex, [ Ag ( NH silver complexes tend to be like to those of its igniter homologue copper. Silver ( III ) complexes tend to be rare and very easily reduced to the more stable lower oxidation states, though they are slightly more stable than those of copper ( III ). For exemplify, the square planar periodate [ Ag ( IO5OH ) 2 ] 5− and tellurate [ Ag { TeO4 ( OH ) 2 } 2 ] 5− complexes may be prepared by oxidising silver ( I ) with alkaline peroxodisulfate. The scandalmongering diamagnetic [ AgF4 ] − is much less stable, fuming in damp air and reacting with methamphetamine. [ 34 ] Silver ( II ) complexes are more common. Like the valence isoelectronic bull ( II ) complexes, they are normally square planar and paramagnetic, which is increased by the greater field splitting for 4d electrons than for 3d electrons. aqueous Ag2+, produced by oxidation of Ag+ by ozone, is a very strong oxidize agent, even in acidic solutions : it is stabilized in phosphorous acid due to complex formation. Peroxodisulfate oxidation is generally necessary to give the more static complexes with heterocyclic compound amines, such as [ Ag ( py ) 4 ] 2+ and [ Ag ( bipy ) 2 ] 2+ : these are stable provided the counterion can not reduce the silver back to the +1 oxidation department of state. [ AgF4 ] 2− is besides known in its violet barium salt, as are some silver ( II ) complexes with N – or O -donor ligands such as pyridine carboxylates. [ 45 ] By far the most authoritative oxidation submit for silver in complexes is +1. The Ag+ cation is diamagnetic, like its homologues Cu+ and Au+, as all three have closed-shell electron configurations with no odd electrons : its complexes are colorless provided the ligands are not excessively easily polarized such as I−. Ag+ forms salts with most anions, but it is loath to coordinate to oxygen and frankincense most of these salts are insoluble in water : the exceptions are the nitrate, perchlorate, and fluoride. The tetracoordinate tetrahedral aqueous ion [ Ag ( H2O ) 4 ] + is known, but the characteristic geometry for the Ag+ cation is 2-coordinate linear. For exemplar, silver chloride dissolves readily in excess aqueous ammonia to form [ Ag ( NH3 ) 2 ] + ; silver salts are dissolved in photography due to the formation of the thiosulfate complex [ Ag ( S2O3 ) 2 ] 3− ; and cyanide extraction for silver ( and amber ) works by the constitution of the complex [ Ag ( CN ) 2 ] −. Silver nitrile forms the linear polymer { Ag–C≡N→Ag–C≡N→ } ; silver thiocyanate has a alike structure, but forms a zigzag rather because of the sp3- crossbreed sulphur atom. Chelating ligands are unable to form linear complexes and frankincense silver medal ( I ) complexes with them tend to form polymers ; a few exceptions exist, such as the near-tetrahedral diphosphine and diarsine complexes [ Ag ( L–L ) 2 ] +. [ 46 ]


Under standard conditions, flatware does not form simple carbonyl, due to the failing of the Ag–C chemical bond. A few are known at very first gear temperatures around 6–15 K, such as the green, planar paramagnetic Ag ( CO ) 3, which dimerizes at 25–30 K, probably by forming Ag–Ag bonds. additionally, the silver medal carbonyl [ Ag ( CO ) ] [ B ( OTeF5 ) 4 ] is known. Polymeric AgLX complexes with alkenes and alkynes are known, but their bonds are thermodynamically weaker than even those of the platinum complex ( though they are formed more readily than those of the analogous aureate complexes ) : they are besides quite unsymmetric, showing the weak π bind in group 11. Ag–C σ bonds may besides be formed by eloquent ( I ), like copper ( I ) and gold ( I ), but the bare alkyl and aryls of flatware ( I ) are even less stable than those of copper ( I ) ( which tend to explode under ambient conditions ). For example, poor thermal stability is reflected in the relative decomposition temperatures of AgMe ( −50 °C ) and CuMe ( −15 °C ) american samoa well as those of PhAg ( 74 °C ) and PhCu ( 100 °C ). [ 47 ] The C–Ag bail is stabilized by perfluoroalkyl ligands, for case in AgCF ( CF3 ) 2. [ 48 ] Alkenylsilver compounds are besides more stable than their alkylsilver counterparts. [ 49 ] Silver- NHC complexes are easily train, and are normally used to prepare other NHC complexes by displacing labile ligands. For exercise, the reaction of the bismuth ( NHC ) silver ( I ) building complex with bismuth ( acetonitrile ) palladium dichloride or chlorido ( dimethyl sulfide ) gold ( I ) : [ 50 ]


different colors of silver–copper–gold alloys silver forms alloys with most other elements on the periodic table. The elements from groups 1–3, except for hydrogen, lithium, and beryllium, are very miscible with silver in the condense phase and form intermetallic compounds ; those from groups 4–9 are only ailing miscible ; the elements in groups 10–14 ( except boron and carbon paper ) have very complex Ag–M phase diagrams and form the most commercially important alloys ; and the remaining elements on the periodic mesa have no consistency in their Ag–M phase diagram. By far the most authoritative such alloys are those with copper : most ash grey used for coinage and jewelry is in reality a silver–copper admixture, and the eutectic mixture is used in void braze. The two metals are wholly miscible as liquids but not as solids ; their importance in industry comes from the fact that their properties tend to be suitable over a wide range of variation in eloquent and copper concentration, although most utilitarian alloys tend to be full-bodied in silver than the eutectic concoction ( 71.9 % eloquent and 28.1 % copper by weight unit, and 60.1 % argent and 28.1 % copper by atom ). [ 51 ] Most other binary star alloys are of fiddling use : for example, silver–gold alloys are excessively soft and silver– cadmium alloys excessively toxic. three alloys have much greater importance : dental amalgams are normally silver–tin–mercury alloys, silver–copper–gold alloys are identical important in jewelry ( normally on the gold-rich side ) and have a huge range of hardnesses and colours, silver–copper–zinc alloys are useful as low-melting braze alloys, and silver–cadmium– indium ( involving three adjacent elements on the periodic table ) is useful in nuclear reactors because of its eminent thermal neutron capture cross-section, good conduction of estrus, mechanical constancy, and resistance to corrosion in hot water system. [ 51 ]


The word “ silver ” appears in Old English in respective spellings, such as seolfor and siolfor. It is cognate with Old high German silabar ; Gothic silubr ; or Old Norse silfr, all ultimately deriving from Proto-Germanic *silubra. The balto-slavic words for eloquent are preferably exchangeable to the Germanic ones ( e.g. russian серебро [ serebró ], Polish srebro, Lithuanian sidãbras ), as is the Celtiberian form silabur. They may have a common aryan origin, although their morphology quite suggest a non-Indo-European Wanderwort. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] Some scholars have frankincense proposed a Paleo-Hispanic origin, pointing to the Basque form zilharr as an evidence. [ 54 ] The chemical symbol Ag is from the Latin discussion for “ silver ”, argentum ( compare Ancient Greek ἄργυρος, árgyros ), from the Proto-Indo-European solution * h₂erǵ- ( once reconstructed as *arǵ- ), meaning “ white ” or “ fall ”. This was the usual Proto-Indo-European password for the metal, whose reflexes are missing in Germanic and Balto-Slavic. [ 53 ]


Silver vase, circa 2400 BC silver was one of the seven metals of antiquity that were known to prehistoric humans and whose discovery is therefore lost to history. [ 55 ] In especial, the three metals of group 11, copper, silver, and gold, occur in the elemental form in nature and were probably used as the first archaic forms of money as opposed to simple barter. [ 56 ] however, unlike copper, ash grey did not lead to the growth of metallurgy on history of its first gear structural strength, and was more often used ornamentally or as money. [ 57 ] Since silver medal is more reactive than gold, supplies of native eloquent were much more limited than those of gold. [ 56 ] For exemplar, ash grey was more expensive than amber in Egypt until around the fifteenth century BC : [ 58 ] the Egyptians are thought to have separated gold from silver by heating the metals with salt, and then reducing the silver chloride produced to the metallic. [ 59 ] The situation changed with the discovery of cupellation, a technique that allowed silver metallic element to be extracted from its ores. While slag heaps found in Asia Minor and on the islands of the Aegean Sea indicate that silver medal was being separated from conduct angstrom early as the 4th millennium BC, [ 8 ] and one of the earliest flatware extraction centres in Europe was Sardinia in the early Chalcolithic period, [ 60 ] these techniques did not spread widely until by and by, when it spread throughout the region and beyond. [ 58 ] The origins of argent production in India, China, and Japan were about surely evenly ancient, but are not well-documented due to their great historic period. [ 59 ]
When the Phoenicians first came to what is now Spain, they obtained so a lot silver that they could not fit it all on their ships, and as a leave used silver to weight their anchors alternatively of precede. [ 58 ] By the time of the Greek and Roman civilizations, silver coins were a staple of the economy : [ 56 ] the Greeks were already extracting ash grey from galena by the seventh hundred BC, [ 58 ] and the rise of Athens was partially made possible by the nearby silver mines at Laurium, from which they extracted about 30 tonnes a class from 600 to 300 BC. [ 61 ] The constancy of the Roman currency relied to a high degree on the provision of silver bullion, largely from Spain, which Roman miners produced on a scale alone before the discovery of the New World. Reaching a extremum production of 200 tonnes per class, an estimated silver store of 10,000 tonnes circulated in the Roman economy in the center of the second gear century AD, five to ten times larger than the blend measure of eloquent available to medieval Europe and the Abbasid Caliphate around AD 800. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] The Romans besides recorded the extraction of ash grey in central and northerly Europe in the same time period. This production came to a about complete stop with the fall of the Roman Empire, not to resume until the time of Charlemagne : by then, tens of thousands of tonnes of argent had already been extracted. [ 59 ] Central Europe became the center of argent output during the Middle Ages, as the Mediterranean deposits exploited by the ancient civilisations had been exhausted. Silver mines were opened in Bohemia, Saxony, Erzgebirge, Alsace, the Lahn region, Siegerland, Silesia, Hungary, Norway, Steiermark, Salzburg, and the southerly Black Forest. Most of these ores were quite full-bodied in argent and could merely be separated by hired hand from the remaining rock and then smelted ; some deposits of native silver were besides encountered. many of these mines were soon exhausted, but a few of them remained active until the Industrial Revolution, before which the world production of silver was around a meager 50 tonnes per year. [ 59 ] In the Americas, high temperature silver-lead cupellation technology was developed by pre-Inca civilizations a early as AD 60–120 ; silver deposits in India, China, Japan, and pre-columbian America continued to be mined during this clock. [ 59 ] [ 64 ] With the discovery of America and the plundering of argent by the spanish conquistadors, Central and South America became the prevailing producers of silver until around the beginning of the eighteenth hundred, particularly Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina : [ 59 ] the last of these countries late took its name from that of the metallic that composed sol much of its mineral wealth. [ 61 ] The silver trade wind gave direction to a ball-shaped network of exchange. As one historian put it, silver “ went round the global and made the world go cycle. ” [ 65 ] a lot of this silver ended up in the hands of the Chinese. A portuguese merchant in 1621 noted that silver medal “ wanders throughout all the world … before flocking to China, where it remains as if at its natural center. ” [ 66 ] still, much of it went to Spain, allowing spanish rulers to pursue military and political ambitions in both Europe and the Americas. “ New World mines, ” concluded several historians, “ supported the spanish empire. ” [ 67 ] In the nineteenth century, elementary product of ash grey moved to North America, peculiarly Canada, Mexico, and Nevada in the United States : some secondary product from lead and zinc ores besides took place in Europe, and deposits in Siberia and the Russian Far East ampere well as in Australia were mined. [ 59 ] Poland emerged as an authoritative producer during the 1970s after the discovery of bull deposits that were rich in silver, before the concentrate of production returned to the Americas the following decade. today, Peru and Mexico are still among the elementary flatware producers, but the distribution of silver production around the worldly concern is quite balanced and about one-fifth of the eloquent supply comes from recycling rather of new production. [ 59 ]

symbolic function

16th-century fresco painting of Judas being paid thirty pieces of silver for his treachery of Jesus Silver plays a sealed role in mythology and has found versatile custom as a metaphor and in folklore. The greek poet Hesiod ‘s Works and Days ( lines 109–201 ) lists unlike ages of man named after metals like gold, silver, bronze and iron to account for consecutive ages of humanity. [ 68 ] Ovid ‘s Metamorphoses contains another recite of the history, containing an illustration of ash grey ‘s metaphorical function of signifying the second-best in a series, better than tan but worse than gold :

But when good Saturn, banish ‘d from above,
Was driv’n to Hell, the populace was under Jove.
Succeeding times a ash grey long time behold,
Excelling brass, but more excell ‘d by gold .
Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book I, trans. John Dryden

In folklore, argent was normally thought to have mystic powers : for exemplar, a bullet frame from silver is much supposed in such folklore the only weapon that is effective against a werewolf, hag, or early monsters. [ 69 ] [ 70 ] [ 71 ] From this the artistic style of a eloquent bullet train developed into figuratively referring to any dim-witted solution with very eminent potency or about heaven-sent results, as in the widely discussed software mastermind paper No Silver Bullet. [ 72 ] other powers attributed to silver include detection of poison and facilitation of passage into the fabulous kingdom of fairies. [ 71 ] Silver output has besides inspired figurative linguistic process. clear references to cupellation occur throughout the Old Testament of the Bible, such as in Jeremiah ‘s call on the carpet to Judah : “ The bellows are burned, the run is consumed of the fire ; the fall through melteth in bootless : for the wicked are not plucked away. Reprobate silver medal shall men call them, because the Lord hath rejected them. ” ( Jeremiah 6:19–20 ) Jeremiah was besides aware of sheet ash grey, exemplifying the malleability and ductility of the metallic : “ Silver spread into plates is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the workman, and of the hands of the founder : blue sky and purple is their clothing : they are all the exploit of cunning men. ” ( Jeremiah 10:9 ) [ 58 ] Silver besides has more minus cultural meanings : the idiom thirty pieces of silver medal, referring to a reward for betrayal, references the bribe Judas Iscariot is said in the New Testament to have taken from jewish leaders in Jerusalem to turn Jesus of Nazareth over to soldiers of the high priest Caiaphas. [ 73 ] Ethically, silver besides symbolizes avarice and abasement of awareness ; this is the negative aspect, the pervert of its value. [ 74 ]

happening and production

Acanthite sample distribution from the Imider mine in Morocco The abundance of silver in the Earth ‘s crust is 0.08 parts per million, about precisely the same as that of mercury. It largely occurs in sulfide ores, particularly acanthite and argentite, Ag2S. Argentite deposits sometimes besides contain native eloquent when they occur in reducing environments, and when in reach with salt water they are converted to chlorargyrite ( including horn silver ), AgCl, which is prevailing in Chile and New South Wales. [ 75 ] Most other silver minerals are ash grey pnictides or chalcogenides ; they are generally glistening semiconductors. Most true argent deposits, as opposed to argentiferous deposits of early metals, came from Tertiary period vulcanism. [ 76 ] The chief sources of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, jumper cable, and lead-zinc obtained from Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, China, Australia, Chile, Poland and Serbia. [ 8 ] Peru, Bolivia and Mexico have been mining silver since 1546, and are hush major populace producers. top silver-producing mines are Cannington ( Australia ), Fresnillo ( Mexico ), San Cristóbal ( Bolivia ), Antamina ( Peru ), Rudna ( Poland ), and Penasquito ( Mexico ). [ 77 ] Top near-term mine development projects through 2015 are Pascua Lama ( Chile ), Navidad ( Argentina ), Jaunicipio ( Mexico ), Malku Khota ( Bolivia ), [ 78 ] and Hackett River ( Canada ). [ 77 ] In Central Asia, Tajikistan is known to have some of the largest eloquent deposits in the world. [ 79 ] Silver is normally found in nature combined with other metals, or in minerals that contain silver compounds, broadly in the form of sulfides such as galena ( lead sulfide ) or cerussite ( star carbonate ). So the primary coil production of flatware requires the smelt and then cupellation of argentiferous run ores, a historically important process. [ 80 ] Lead melts at 327 °C, lead oxide at 888 °C and silver melts at 960 °C. To separate the flatware, the alloy is melted again at the high temperature of 960 °C to 1000 °C in an oxidise environment. The lead oxidises to lead monoxide, then known as litharge, which captures the oxygen from the early metals award. The liquid star oxide is removed or absorbed by capillary military action into the hearth linings. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] [ 83 ]

silver(s) + 2 lead(s) + O


(g) → 2 PbO(absorbed) + Ag(l)

today, silver metallic is primarily produced rather as a secondary coil by-product of electrolytic polish of copper, lead, and zinc, and by application of the Parkes process on lead bullion from ore that besides contains flatware. [ 84 ] In such processes, argent follows the non-ferrous metallic element in question through its concentration and smelt, and is by and by purified out. For exercise, in copper production, purified copper is electrolytically deposited on the cathode, while the less reactive precious metals such as silver and gold roll up under the anode as the alleged “ anode sludge ”. This is then separated and purified of base metals by discussion with hot aerated load sulphuric acid and heat with lime or silica flux, before the silver medal is purified to over 99.9 % honor via electrolysis in nitrate solution. [ 75 ] commercial fine silver is at least 99.9 % pure, and purities greater than 99.999 % are available. In 2014, Mexico was the top producer of flatware ( 5,000 tonnes or 18.7 % of the worldly concern ‘s sum of 26,800 metric ton ), followed by China ( 4,060 deoxythymidine monophosphate ) and Peru ( 3,780 deoxythymidine monophosphate ). [ 84 ]

In marine environments

Silver concentration is low in seawater ( pmol/L ). Levels deviate by depth and between water bodies. Dissolved ash grey concentrations range from 0.3 pmol/L in coastal surface waters to 22.8 pmol/L in oceanic bass waters. [ 85 ] Analyzing the presence and dynamics of silver in nautical environments is difficult due to these peculiarly humble concentrations and building complex interactions in the environment. [ 86 ] Although a rare decipher metallic, concentrations are greatly impacted by fluvial, aeolian, atmospheric, and upwelling inputs, a well as anthropogenetic inputs via free, barren disposal, and emissions from industrial companies. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] other inner processes such as decay of organic matter may be a source of dissolved silver in deeper waters, which feeds into some surface waters through upwelling and vertical mix. [ 88 ] In the Atlantic and Pacific, silver concentrations are minimal at the surface but ascent in deep waters. [ 89 ] Silver is taken up by plankton in the photic zone, remobilized with depth, and enriched in abstruse waters. Silver is transported from the Atlantic to the other oceanic water masses. [ 87 ] In North Pacific waters, ash grey is remobilized at a slower rate and increasingly enriched compared to deep Atlantic waters. Silver has increasing concentrations that follow the major oceanic conveyer belt that cycles water and nutrients from the North Atlantic to the South Atlantic to the North Pacific. [ 90 ] There is not an extensive amount of data focused on how nautical biography is affected by silver despite the probably deleterious effects it could have on organisms through bioaccumulation, association with particulate matters, and sorption. [ 85 ] not until about 1984 did scientists begin to understand the chemical characteristics of silver and the potential perniciousness. In fact, mercury is the only early trace alloy that surpasses the toxic effects of eloquent ; however, the full moon extent of silver medal perniciousness is not expected in oceanic conditions because of its ability to transfer into nonreactive biological compounds. [ 91 ] In one study, the presence of excess ionic silver and silver nanoparticles caused bioaccumulation effects on zebrafish organs and altered the chemical pathways within their gills. [ 92 ] In addition, very early experimental studies demonstrated how the toxic effects of silver fluctuate with salt and other parameters, american samoa well as between biography stages and different species such as finfish, mollusk, and crustaceans. [ 93 ] Another learn found raised concentrations of silver in the muscles and liver of dolphins and whales, indicating contamination of this metallic element within holocene decades. Silver is not an easy metallic for an organism to eliminate and elevated railway concentrations can cause death. [ 94 ]

Monetary use

The earliest know coins were minted in the kingdom of Lydia in Asia Minor around 600 BC. [ 95 ] The coins of Lydia were made of electrum, which is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, that was available within the territory of Lydia. [ 95 ] Since that clock time, silver medal standards, in which the standard economic unit of score is a fix weight of silver, have been far-flung throughout the global until the twentieth century. noteworthy silver coins through the centuries include the greek dram, [ 96 ] the Roman denarius, [ 97 ] the Islamic kuwaiti dirham, [ 98 ] the karshapana from ancient India and indian rupee from the clock of the Mughal Empire ( grouped with copper and gold coins to create a trimetallic standard ), [ 99 ] and the spanish dollar. [ 100 ] [ 101 ] The proportion between the sum of argent used for coinage and that used for other purposes has fluctuated greatly over time ; for case, in wartime, more silver tends to have been used for neologism to finance the war. [ 102 ] today, silver bullion has the ISO 4217 currency code XAG, one of only four valued metals to have one ( the others being palladium, platinum, and aureate ). [ 103 ] Silver coins are produced from mold rods or ingots, rolled to the correct thickness, heat-treated, and then used to cut blanks from. These blanks are then milled and minted in a mint urge ; modern coining presses can produce 8000 silver coins per hour. [ 102 ]


silver prices are normally quoted in troy ounces. One troy ounce is equal to 31.1034768 grams. The London silver medal fix is published every working day at noon London time. [ 104 ] This price is determined by several major international banks and is used by London bullion market members for trade that sidereal day. Prices are most normally shown as the United States dollar ( USD ), the Pound sterling ( GBP ), and the Euro ( EUR ) .


Jewellery and silverware

seventeenth century eloquent cutter The major habit of argent besides neologism throughout most of history was in the manufacture of jewelry and other general-use items, and this continues to be a major manipulation today. Examples include table silver medal for cutter, for which silver is highly suited due to its antibacterial properties. western concert flutes are normally plated with or made out of greatest silver ; [ 106 ] in fact, most silverware is entirely silverplate rather than made out of pure silver ; the silver is normally put in place by electroplating. silverplate glass ( as opposed to metallic element ) is used for mirrors, vacuum flasks, and Christmas tree decorations. [ 107 ] Because arrant silver is identical soft, most eloquent used for these purposes is alloyed with copper, with finenesses of 925/1000, 835/1000, and 800/1000 being coarse. One drawback is the easy tarnish of silver in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and its derivatives. Including valued metals such as palladium, platinum, and gold gives resistance to tarnishing but is quite costly ; base metals like zinc, cadmium, silicon, and germanium do not wholly prevent corrosion and tend to affect the luster and semblance of the alloy. Electrolytically refine pure silver plating is effective at increasing immunity to tarnishing. The common solutions for restoring the shininess of tarnished silver are dipping baths that reduce the silver sulfide airfoil to metallic ash grey, and cleaning off the layer of tarnish with a glue ; the latter approach besides has the welcome english impression of polishing the eloquent concurrently. [ 106 ] A simpleton chemical access to removal of the sulfide tarnish is to bring argent items into touch with aluminum foil whilst immersed in water containing a conducting strategic arms limitation talks, such as sodium chloride. [ citation needed ]


In medicine, silver is incorporated into wound dressings and used as an antibiotic coating in checkup devices. Wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine or silver medal nanomaterials are used to treat external infections. Silver is besides used in some aesculapian applications, such as urinary catheters ( where probationary tell indicates it reduces catheter-related urinary tract infections ) and in endotracheal emit tubes ( where testify suggests it reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia ). [ 108 ] [ 109 ] The silver ion is bioactive and in sufficient concentration promptly kills bacteria in vitro. Silver ions intervene with enzymes in the bacteria that transport nutrients, form structures, and synthesize cell walls ; these ions besides bond with the bacteria ‘s genetic material. Silver and silver nanoparticles are used as an disinfectant in a diverseness of industrial, healthcare, and domestic lotion : for case, infusing invest with nanosilver particles therefore allows them to stay odorless for longer. [ 110 ] [ 111 ] Bacteria can, however, develop resistance to the antimicrobial action of silver. [ 112 ] Silver compounds are taken up by the soundbox like mercury compounds, but lack the perniciousness of the latter. Silver and its alloys are used in cranial surgery to replace bone, and silver–tin–mercury amalgams are used in dentistry. [ 107 ] Silver diammine fluoride, the fluoride salt of a coordination complex with the recipe [ Ag ( NH3 ) 2 ] F, is a topical medicine ( drug ) used to treat and prevent dental caries ( cavities ) and relieve dentinal hypersensitivity. [ 113 ]


Silver is very significant in electronics for conductors and electrodes on account of its high electric conduction even when tarnished. Bulk argent and silver foils were used to make vacuum tubes, and continue to be used today in the industry of semiconductor devices, circuits, and their components. For model, argent is used in senior high school choice connectors for RF, VHF, and higher frequencies, peculiarly in tuned circuits such as cavity filters where conductors can not be scaled by more than 6 %. Printed circuits and RFID antennas are made with flatware paints, [ 8 ] [ 114 ] Powdered silver and its alloys are used in spread preparations for conductor layers and electrodes, ceramic capacitors, and other ceramic components. [ 115 ]

Brazing alloys

Silver-containing braze alloys are used for brazing metallic materials, by and large cobalt, nickel, and copper-based alloys, tool steels, and valued metals. The basic components are silver and copper, with other elements selected according to the specific application desired : examples include zinc, tin, cadmium, palladium, manganese, and morning star. Silver provides increase workability and corrosion electric resistance during usage. [ 116 ]

Chemical equipment

Silver is utilitarian in the manufacture of chemical equipment on explanation of its low chemical reactivity, eminent thermal conduction, and being well feasible. silver medal crucibles ( alloyed with 0.15 % nickel to avoid recrystallisation of the metallic element at loss estrus ) are used for carrying out alkaline coalition. Copper and ash grey are besides used when doing chemistry with fluorine. equipment made to work at senior high school temperatures is frequently silverplate. Silver and its alloys with amber are used as wire or ring seals for oxygen compressors and vacuum equipment. [ 117 ]


Silver metallic element is a good catalyst for oxidation reactions ; in fact it is slightly besides beneficial for most purposes, as finely divided silver tends to result in complete oxidation of organic substances to carbon dioxide and water, and therefore coarser-grained silver tends to be used rather. For case, 15 % silver supported on α-Al2O3 or silicates is a catalyst for the oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide at 230–270 °C. Dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde is conducted at 600–720 °C over silver gauze or crystals as the catalyst, as is dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol to acetone. In the flatulence phase, ethylene glycol yields glyoxal and ethyl alcohol yields acetaldehyde, while organic amines are dehydrated to nitriles. [ 117 ]


The photosensitivity of the silver halides allowed for their use in traditional photography, although digital photography, which does not use flatware, is now dominant. The light-sensitive emulsion used in black-and-white photography is a suspension of silver medal halide crystals in gelatin, possibly assorted in with some noble metallic element compounds for better photosensitivity, developing, and tuning [ clarify ]. Colour photography requires the addition of limited dye components and sensitisers, so that the initial black-and-white argent picture couples with a different dye component. The original ash grey images are bleached off and the silver is then recovered and recycled. Silver nitrate is the starting material in all cases. [ 118 ] The use of silver nitrate and silver halides in photography has quickly declined with the second coming of digital engineering. From the flower global requirement for photographic ash grey in 1999 ( 267,000,000 troy ounces or 8,304.6 tonnes ) the market contracted about 70 % by 2013. [ 119 ]


Nanosilver particles, between 10 and 100 nanometres in size, are used in many applications. They are used in conductive inks for print electronics, and have a much lower melting point than larger silver particles of micrometre size. They are besides used medicinally in antibacterials and antifungals in a lot the same room as larger silver particles. [ 111 ] In addition, according to the European Union Observatory for Nanomaterials ( EUON ), argent nanoparticles are used both in pigments, a well as cosmetics. [ 120 ] [ 121 ]


vark A tray of South asian sweets, with some pieces covered with glistening silver pure silver metallic element is used as a food color. It has the E174 appellation and is approved in the European Union. [ 122 ] Traditional Indian and Pakistani dishes sometimes include cosmetic eloquent foil known as vark, [ 123 ] and in assorted early cultures, silver dragée are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and early dessert items. [ 124 ] Photochromic lenses include ash grey halides, so that ultraviolet abstemious in natural day liberates metallic silver, darkening the lenses. The silver halides are reformed in lower light intensities. Colourless silver chloride films are used in radiation detectors. Zeolite sieves incorporating Ag+ ions are used to desalinate seawater during rescues, using silver ions to precipitate chloride as eloquent chloride. Silver is besides used for its antibacterial properties for water sanitation, but the application of this is limited by limits on silver medal consumption. Colloidal silver is similarly used to disinfect closed swim pools ; while it has the advantage of not giving off a smell like hypochlorite treatments do, colloidal eloquent is not effective adequate for more contaminated open swim pools. Small silver iodide crystals are used in cloud seed to cause rain. [ 111 ]


Chemical compound
Silver compounds have low toxicity compared to those of most early grave metals, as they are ailing absorbed by the homo torso when digested, and that which does get absorbed is quickly converted to insoluble silver compounds or complexed by metallothionein. however, ash grey fluoride and ash grey nitrate are caustic and can cause tissue damage, resulting in gastroenteritis, diarrhea, falling blood imperativeness, cramps, paralysis, and respiratory catch. Animals repeatedly dosed with eloquent salts have been observed to experience anemia, slowed growth, necrosis of the liver, and fatso degeneration of the liver and kidneys ; rats implanted with silver foil or injected with colloidal eloquent have been observed to develop place tumours. parenterally admistered colloidal silver causes acute silver poison. [ 126 ] Some waterborne species are peculiarly sensible to silver salts and those of the early precious metals ; in most situations, however, silver does not pose serious environmental hazards. [ 126 ] In large doses, silver and compounds containing it can be absorbed into the circulatory arrangement and become deposited in respective body tissues, leading to argyria, which results in a blue-grayish pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Argyria is rare, and then far as is known, does not otherwise harm a person ‘s health, though it is disfiguring and normally permanent wave. balmy forms of argyria are sometimes mistaken for cyanosis, a blasphemous tint on skin, caused by miss of oxygen. [ 126 ] [ 8 ] Metallic ash grey, like copper, is an antibacterial agent, which was known to the ancients and beginning scientifically investigated and named the oligodynamic effect by Carl Nägeli. Silver ions damage the metabolism of bacteria even at such low concentrations as 0.01–0.1 milligrams per liter ; metallic flatware has a similar effect due to the formation of flatware oxide. This impression is lost in the presence of sulfur ascribable to the extreme insolubility of silver sulfide. [ 126 ] Some silver compounds are very explosive, such as the nitrogen compounds silver azide, silver amide, and silver fulminate, american samoa well as argent acetylide, silver oxalate, and silver medal ( II ) oxide. They can explode on heat, force, drying, illumination, or sometimes ad lib. To avoid the formation of such compounds, ammonia and acetylene should be kept away from silver medal equipment. Salts of silver with powerfully oxidising acids such as silver chlorate and silver nitrate can explode on touch with materials that can be promptly oxidised, such as organic compounds, sulphur and soot. [ 126 ]

See besides


Sources used above

far learn

  • William L. Silber, The Story of Silver: How the White Metal Shaped America and the Modern World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2019.

Listen to this article




)Spoken Wikipedia icon ( ), and does not reflect subsequent edits.This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 1 September 2005, and does not reflect subsequent edits.

reservoir :
Category : Economy

Post navigation

Leave a Comment

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai. Các trường bắt buộc được đánh dấu *