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List of Chinese cash coins by inscription – Wikipedia

Chinese cash coins were first produced during the Warring States menstruation, and they became standardised as the Ban Liang ( 半兩 ) neologism during the Qin dynasty which followed. Over the years, cash coins have had many different inscriptions, and the Wu Zhu ( 五銖 ) inscription, which first appeared under the Han dynasty, became the most normally used inscription and was frequently used by succeeding dynasties for 700 years until the introduction of the Kaiyuan Tongbao ( 開元通寳 ) during the Tang dynasty. This was besides the inaugural time regular script was used as all earlier cash coins entirely used seal script. During the Song dynasty a large number of different inscriptions was used, and several different styles of chinese calligraphy were used, even on coins with the same inscriptions produced during the lapp period. These cash coins are known as matched coins ( 對錢 ). This was primitively pioneered by the Southern Tang. During the Yuan dynasty, largely deprecated copper coinage was abandoned in favor of paper money. This swerve continued under the Ming dynasty. Cash coins only contained the earned run average names of the emperor butterfly during the Ming dynasty. Due to a list taboo the term “ Yuanbao ” ( 元寶 ) was phased out from cash coin inscriptions as the fall through of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang had the son “ yuan ” ( 元 ) in his name. The course of entirely using the era names on currencies continued during the Qing dynasty, and all cash coins issued during this period were written in regular script.

Below is a list of obverse inscriptions that were used on chinese cash coins organized by time period and/or dynasty. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ]

Warring States [edit ]

During the Warring states period, the first precursors of the chinese cash coins started to appear. These early round coins ( 圜錢, huánqián ) circulated alongside the knife and spade money. As most of these early round coins had round holes, the first gear “ true ” cash coins were the Yi Hua ( 一化 ) produced by the State of Yan. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Apart from two modest and presumably deep coins from the State of Qin, coins from the spade money area have a round trap and mention to the jin and liang units. Those from the knife money area have a square hole and are denominated in hua .

Round hole, no rims, reverses plain and flat [edit ]

list of early beat coins produced between 350 BC and 220 BC : [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ]

state of Yan [edit ]

list of early round coins produced by the State of Yan between 300 BC and 220 BC :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu pinyin Alternative reading(s) Image
Yi Hua[d] 一化 yī huà 一刀
(Yi Dao)
S464 Yan YiHua (6986331180).jpg
Ming Hua 明化 míng huà 明刀
(Ming Dao)
匽化
(Yan Hua)
Ming Hua (明化) - Scott Semans.jpg
Ming Si 明四 míng sì 匽四
(Yan Si)

express of Qi [edit ]

number of early round of golf coins produced by the State of Qi between 300 BC and 220 BC :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu pinyin Alternative reading(s) Image
Yi Hua 益化 yì huà 賹化
(Ai Hua)
Yi Si Hua 益四化 yì sì huà 賹四化
(Ai Si Hua)
Yi Si Hua (益四化) - Scott Semans.jpg
Yi Liu Hua[e] 益六化 yì liù huà 賹六化
(Ai Liu Hua)
Yi Liu Hua (益六化) - Scott Semans.jpg

state of Qin [edit ]

tilt of early cycle coins produced by the State of Qin between 250 BC and 220 BC :

Qin dynasty [edit ]

During the Qin dynasty output of the Ban Liang cash coins continued and its weight was standardised. [ 12 ]

western Han dynasty [edit ]

Under the Western Han dynasty the Ban Liang cash coins of the earlier Qin dynasty were retained until a series of monetary reforms replaced them first with the San Zhu and then the Wu Zhu, the latter would be continued to be manufactured for around 700 years .

Xin dynasty [edit ]

After Wang Mang usurped the throne he instituted respective monetary reforms, in AD 9 he retained the Wu Zhu cash coins but introduced two newly types of Knife money, between AD 9 and 10 he introduced an impossibly complex system involving tortoise plate, cowries, amber, silver, six rung copper coins, and a reintroduction of the nigger money in ten denominations. In AD 14, all these tokens were abolished, and replaced by another type of spade mint and modern round coins. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] tilt of cash coins issued by the Xin dynasty :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu pinyin Literal translation Years of production Emperor Image
The Six Round Coins (series 9–14)
Xiao Quan Zhi Yi 小泉直一 xiǎoquán zhí yī “Small Coin, Value One” 9–14 Wang Mang Xiao Quan Zhi Yi - Scott Semans (Cropped).png
Yao Quan Yi Shi 么泉一十 yǎo quán yīshí “Baby Coin, Ten” 9–14 Wang Mang
You Quan Er Shi 幼泉二十 yòu quán èrshí “Juvenile Coin, Twenty” 9–14 Wang Mang
Zhong Quan San Shi 中泉三十 zhōng quán sānshí “Middle Coin, Thirty” 9–14 Wang Mang Zhong Quan San Shi (中泉三十) - Scott Semans.jpg
Zhuang Quan Si Shi 壯泉四十 zhuàng quán sìshí “Adult Coin, Forty” 9–14 Wang Mang
Da Quan Wu Shi 大泉五十 dàquán wǔshí “Large coin with a nominal value of fifty (Wu Zhu cash coins)” 9–14 Wang Mang Da Quan Wu Shi, flat top Da.jpg
Later issues
Huo Quan 貨泉 huòquán “Wealth/Money Coin” 14–23 Wang Mang S-150 Xin Wang Mang, 9-23, 20mm.jpg
Bu Quan 布泉 bù quán “Spade Coin” 14–23 Wang Mang Bu Quan - Scott Semans.jpg

Chengjia [edit ]

The insurgent Gongsun Shu cast iron cash coins based on the Wu Zhu ‘s of the Western Han dynasty in his maverick state of Chengjia in contemporary szechwan :

Eastern Han dynasty [edit ]

The Eastern Han dynasty only shed Wu Zhu ( 五銖 ) cash coins. [ 18 ]

Kingdom of Khotan [edit ]

list of cash coins produced by the Kingdom of Khotan : [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ]

Three Kingdoms [edit ]

list of chinese cash coins issued during Three Kingdoms time period :

Kingdom of Kucha [edit ]

list of cash coins produced by the Kingdom of Kucha : [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 2 ]

Inscription
(Obverse)
Inscription
(Reverse)
Approximate years of production Differentiating features Image
Blank Blank 265–589 These have a rim around the square centre hole on one side while the other side is rimless, they tend to thin on the outside while they’re thick on the inside.
Blank Blank 265–589 Similar to the first type but these cash coins have no inner rim.
Blank Blank 265–589 These cash coins are completely without rim but are square in shape and have a square centre hole, they tend to be very thin.
Blank Blank 265–589 These cash coins are irregularly shaped, diminutive in size, thin, and are cast of poor workmanship. Some are merely five millimeters in diameter and weigh as little as 0.2 grams.
五銖
(Wu Zhu)
An undeciphered Kuśiññe language inscription. Unknown These are the only known cash coins produced by Kucha with an inscription. A114 Koutcha TIV 1ar (8627360241).jpg

Jin dynasty and Sixteen Kingdoms [edit ]

list of chinese cash coins produced during the Jin dynasty and Sixteen Kingdoms period : [ 2 ]

Northern and Southern dynasties [edit ]

list of cash coins produced by the Northern and Southern dynasties : [ 29 ]

Sui dynasty [edit ]

The Sui dynasty entirely cast Wu Zhu ( 五銖 ) cash coins. [ 31 ]

Tang dynasty [edit ]

list of cash coins issued by the Tang dynasty :

local issues [edit ]

list of local publish cash coins of the Tang dynasty :

Yan dynasty [edit ]

list of cash coins issued by the Great Yan dynasty during the An Lushan rebellion :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Years of production Emperor Image
Deyi Yuanbao 得壹元寶 de yī yuánbǎo 758 Shi Siming De Yi Yuan Bao (得壹元寶) - Great Yan Dynasty - Scott Semans.jpg
Shuntian Yuanbao 順天元寶 shùn tiān yuánbǎo 759–761 Shi Siming Shun Tian Yuan Bao (順天元寶) - Great Yan Dynasty - Scott Semans.jpg

Uyghur Khaganate [edit ]

The Uyghur Khaganate manufactured a cash mint with an Old Uyghur inscription under the predominate of Boquq Khagan. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] A late cash coin is known to have been cast by the Uyghurs but it is not known when it was manufactured. [ 37 ] [ 38 ]

Inscription
(obverse)
Inscription
(reverse)
Approximate years of production Khagan Image
Köl bilgä Tängri Boquq Uiğur qağan Il tutmiš yarliğinga 795–808 Boquq Khagan
Iduq yarliq yurisun Unknown Unknown Uyghur Khaganate - Xizhou Huihu.png

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms [edit ]

late Liang dynasty [edit ]

list of cash coins produced by the Later Liang dynasty ( 907–923 ) :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Years of production Emperor Image
Kaiping Tongbao 開平通寶 kāipíng tōng bǎo 907 Zhu Wen

late Tang dynasty [edit ]

list of cash coins produced by the Later Tang dynasty ( 923–936 ) :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Years of production Emperor Image
Tiancheng Yuanbao 天成元寶 tiānchéng yuánbǎo 926–929 Ming 天成元寶 (Tian Cheng Yuan Bao) - Dr. Luke Roberts 01.png

late Jin dynasty ( 936–947 ) [edit ]

number of cash coins produced by the Later Jin dynasty ( 936–947 ) :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Years of production Emperor Image
Tianfu Yuanbao 天福元寶 tiānfú yuánbǎo 938 Gao Zong Tianfu Yuanbao. Coin of the Tianfu era.jpg

late Han dynasty [edit ]

list of cash coins produced by the Later Han dynasty ( 948–951 ) :

late Zhou dynasty [edit ]

list of cash coins produced by the Later Zhou dynasty ( 951–960 ) : [ 41 ]

Former Shu [edit ]

list of cash coins attributed to the Former Shu Kingdom ( 907–925 ) :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Years of production King Image
Yongping Yuanbao 永平元寶 yǒng píng yuánbǎo 911–915 Wang Jian
Tongzheng Yuanbao 通正元寶 tōng zhèng yuánbǎo 916 Wang Jian Tong Zheng Yuan Bao.jpg
Tianhan Yuanbao 天漢元寶 tiānhàn yuánbǎo 917 Wang Jian
Guangtian Yuanbao 光天元寶 guāng tiān yuánbǎo 918 Wang Jian Guang Tian Yuan Bao.jpg
Qiande Yuanbao 乾德元寶 qián dé yuánbǎo 919–924 Wang Zongyan S563 Shuanterieur WangYan 1 (8213184679).jpg
Xiankang Yuanbao 咸康元寶 xián kāng yuánbǎo 925 Wang Zongyan Xian Kang Yuan Bao - Scott Semans.jpg

Kingdom of Min [edit ]

list of cash coins attributed to the Kingdom of Min ( 909–945 ) :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Differentiating features and notes Years of production Monarch Image
Kaiyuan Tongbao 開元通寶 kāiyuán tōng bǎo A small lead Kai Yuan coin was minted in Ninghua County of Dingzhou Prefecture in Fujian Province, where deposits of lead had been discovered. The lead coins circulated together with copper coins. 916 Wang Shenzhi
Kaiyuan Tongbao 開元通寶 kāiyuán tōng bǎo These cash coins have a large dot above on the reverse side. They are made of iron and the same coin cast in bronze is extremely rare. 922 Wang Shenzhi
Kaiyuan Tongbao 開元通寶 kāiyuán tōng bǎo These cash coins have the character Min (Chinese: 閩; pinyin: mǐn) on the reverse.
They are from the Fujian region and made of lead.
Wang Shenzhi
Kaiyuan Tongbao 開元通寶 kāiyuán tōng bǎo These cash coins have the character Fu (Chinese: 福; pinyin: ) on the reverse in reference to Fuzhou.
They are made of lead.
Wang Shenzhi Kai Yuan Tong Bao (開元通寶) - Kingdom of Min under Wang Shenzhi, Fuzhou Mint - Scott Semans.jpg
Yonglong Tongbao 永隆通寶 yǒnglóng tōng bǎo These iron cash coins have the character Min (Chinese: 閩; pinyin: mǐn) on the reverse and comes from the Fujian region.
There is a crescent below.
One of these large Yonglong Tongbao coins was worth 10 small coins and 100 lead coins. A string of 500 of these poorly made Min iron coins were popularly called a kao (“a manacle”).
942 Wang Yanxi Yong Long Tong Bao (永隆通寶) - Kingdom of Min - Scott Semans.jpg
Tiande Tongbao 天德通寶 tiān dé tōng bǎo These cash coins are made of iron. 944 Wang Yanzheng

Kingdom of Chu [edit ]

list of cash coins attributed to the Kingdom of Chu ( 907–951 ) :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Differentiating features and notes Years of production Monarch Image
Tiance Fubao 天策府寶 tiān cè fǔ bǎo These cash coins are made of iron. 911 Supreme Commander Ma Yin 天策府宝.jpg
Qianfeng Quanbao 乾封泉寶 qiān fēng quán bǎo These cash coins are made of iron.
According to the histories, because there was much lead and iron in Hunan, Ma Yin took the advice of his minister Gao Yu to cast lead and iron coins at Changsha in 925.
Extremely rare bronze specimens are also known.
925 King Wumu of Chu S588 Chu MaYin H1562 1ar854000 (9111151934).jpg
Qianyuan Zhongbao 乾元重寶 qiān yuán zhòng bǎo These cash coins bear an inscription that is also found on Tang coins.
This small lead coin is thought to have been issued by the Chu kingdom. Similar bronze coins are sometimes attributed to Ma Yin, but could be funerary items.
Unknown Ma Yin

former Shu [edit ]

Cash coins produced by the Later Shu ( 926–965 ) include :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Differentiating features Years of production Monarch Image
Dashu Tongbao 大蜀通寶 dà shǔ tōng bǎo These cash coins are attributed to Meng Zhixiang when he became Emperor Gao Zu of Shu in Chengdu in 934. He died three months later. Despite its rarity, some say this coin continued to be cast by his son, Meng Chang, until 937. 934(–937) Gao Zu
Guangzheng Tongbao 廣政通寶 guǎng zhèng tōng bǎo These cash coins are either made of bronze or iron.
The bronze coins were cast by Meng Chang from the beginning of this period, 938.
In 956, iron coins began to be cast to cover additional military expenses.
938–963 Meng Chang

Southern Tang Kingdom [edit ]

Cash coins manufactured by the Southern Tang Kingdom ( 937–975 ) admit : [ 47 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Differentiating features Years of production Monarch Image
Daqi Tongbao 大齊通寶 dà qí tōng bǎo These cash coins were said to have been cast by the Prince of Qi or by the founder of the Southern Tang with the original name of the Tang kingdom.
Only two specimens were known, and these have now disappeared.
937 Xu Zhigao
Baoda Yuanbao 保大元寶 bǎo dà yuán bǎo This cash coin has on its reverse the character Tian (天) above.
They are made of iron and date between.
There is also an extremely rare bronze example of this coin.
943–957 Yuan Zong
Yongtong Quanhuo 永通泉貨 yǒng tōng quán huò 959–964 Yuan Zong
Tangguo Tongbao 唐國通寶 tang guó tōng bǎo The inscriptions of these cash coins could be written in seal, li, and regular script.[48] 959 Yuan Zong S619 YuanZu H1593 1ar85 (10312127253).jpg
Datang Tongbao 大唐通寶 dà táng tōng bǎo These coins are all written in li script. 959 Yuan Zong 123 S-440 S. Tang, 10 Kingdoms, Yuan Zong 943-961, 22mm.jpg
Kaiyuan Tongbao 開元通寶 kāiyuán tōng bǎo These versions of the Kaiyuan Tongbao are written in li script and have broader rims. 961 Li Yu 1cash Kaiyuan LiYU H1599 1ar85 (8721918475).jpg

Southern Han Kingdom [edit ]

The cash coins produced by the Southern Han dynasty were :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Differentiating features Years of production Monarch Image
Kaiping Yuanbao 開平元寶 kāi píng yuán bǎo These cash coins were made from lead. 907–910 Liu Yin
Qianheng Tongbao 乾亨通寶 gān hēng tōng bǎo 917–942 Lie Zu
Qianheng Zhongbao 乾亨重寶 gān hēng zhòng bǎo These cash coins were made from bronze and lead. 917–942 Lie Zu S523 HanSud LiuYan (7210437712).jpg

Crude lead coins [edit ]

Crude conduct cash coins attributed to the Southern Han/Chu sphere ( 900–971 ) :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Differentiating features Image
Kaiyuan Tongbao 開元通寶 kāiyuán tōng bǎo These cash coins are based on Tang Dynasty coins. They have a local style with numerous reverse inscriptions which are apparently series numbers. Crude lead Kai Yuan Tong Bao (開元通寶) - Southern Han Kingdom - Scott Semans.jpg

There is a identical great variety of such coins ; some have crescents on the revoke. The Kai character sometimes looks like yong ( chinese : 永 ; pinyin : yǒng ). Characters and legends much reversed because the bungling workmen had not mastered the art of engraving in damaging to make the moulds. Some specimens have meaningless characters. Cash coins with loanblend inscriptions from this same area :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Image
Wu Wu 五五 wǔ wǔ
Wu Wu Wu 五五五 wǔ wǔ wǔ
Wu Wu Wu Wu 五五五五 wǔ wǔ wǔ wǔ
Wu Zhu 五朱 wǔ zhū
Kai Yuan Wu Wu 開元五五 kāiyuán wǔ wǔ

These cash coins are typical of the hybrid inscriptions formed by combinations of inappropriate characters. They besides have series numbers on the revoke. note that the radical “ 釒 “ is missing from this Wu Zhu ( 五朱 ) coin. One discrepancy of the Wu Wu ( 五五 ) coin has the Xin dynasty inscription Huo Quan ( 貨泉 ) on its invert .

You Zhou autonomous region [edit ]

The trace cash coins were produced in the You Zhou autonomous area ( which enjoyed virtual independence from the rest of the conglomerate ) between 900 and 914 :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Differentiating features Image
Yong An Yi Shi 永安一十 yǒng’ān yīshí
Yong An Yi Bai 永安一百 yǒng’ān yībǎi Yong An Yi Bai (You Zhou Autonomous Region) - Scott Semans.jpg
Yong An Wu Bai 永安五百 yǒng’ān wǔbǎi
Yong An Yi Qian 永安一千 yǒng’ān yīqiān These cash coins are found in either bronze or iron.
Wu Zhu 五銖 wǔ zhū These Wu Zhu cash coins are made from iron.
Huo Bu (obverse)
San Bai (reverse)
貨布 (Obverse)
三百 (reverse)
huò bù (obverse)
sānbǎi (reverse)
Shuntian Yuanbao 順天元寶 shùn tiān yuánbǎo Are made from iron. These poorly made coins are imitations of coins of previous regimes and are attributed to the You Zhou.

Liao dynasty [edit ]

Liao dynasty coins ( like some contemporaneous Song dynasty coins ) can be read top-right-bottom-left ( clockwise ), but unlike the Song ‘s neologism never appeared top-bottom-right-left. Liao dynasty era cash coins have appeared in both Chinese and Khitan scripts, but the latter can more accurately be described as a type of Chinese numismatic charms as they were n’t meant for circulation. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ] list of cash coins produced by the Khitan -led Liao dynasty : [ 57 ] [ 58 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Years of minting Emperor Image
Tian Xian Tong Bao 天顯通寶 天显通宝 927–937 Taizong
Tian Chao Wan Shun 天朝萬順 天朝万顺 ?
Qian Qiu Wan Sui 千秋萬歲 千秋万岁 938 Taizong
Hui Tong Tong Bao 會同通寶 会同通宝 938–947 Taizong
Tian Lu Tong Bao 天祿通寶 天禄通宝 947–951 Shizong
Ying Li Tong Bao 應曆通寶 应历通宝 951–969 Muzong
Bao Ning Tong Bao 保寧通寶 保宁通宝 969–982 Jingzong
Tong He Yuan Bao 統和元寶 統和元宝 983–1011 Shengzong
Chong Xi Tong Bao 重熙通寶 重熙通宝 1032–1055 Xingzong Zhong Xi Tong Bao (重熙通寶) - Scott Semans.jpg
Qing Ning Tong Bao 清寧通寶 清宁通宝 1055–1064 Daozong Qingning Tongbao.jpg
Xian Yong Tong Bao 咸雍通寶 咸雍通宝 1065–1074 Daozong Xian Yong Tong Bao - Scott Semans.jpg
Da Kang Tong Bao 大康通寶 大康通宝 1074–1084 Daozong S508 Liao (8000209791).jpg
Da Kang Yuan Bao 大康元寶 大康元宝 1074–1084 Daozong Da Kang Yuan Bao (大康元寶) - BabelStone.jpg
Da An Yuan Bao 大安元寶 大安元宝 1085–1094 Daozong S507 Liao DaoZong DaAn 1085 1094 (6966386872).jpg
Shou Chang Yuan Bao 壽昌元寶 寿昌元宝 1095–1101 Daozong S539 (7901029368).jpg
Qian Tong Yuan Bao 乾統元寶 乾统元宝 1101–1110 Tianzuo S583 TianZuo QianTong H1821 1ar85 (8805324799).jpg
Tian Qing Yuan Bao 天慶元寶 天庆元宝 1111–1120 Tianzuo Tian Qing Yuan Bao (天慶元寶) - BabelStone.jpg

Northern Song dynasty [edit ]

The cash coins of the Song dynasty are noteworthy in the expression that many cash coins of the like era that use the same dedication and have the lapp nominal rate come in multiple chinese calligraphic fonts. many Emperors of the Song dynasty personally wrote the calligraphy to be inscribed on the cash mint. There are generally three scripts used on Song dynasty era cash coins which include unconstipated handwriting, Seal script, and Running hand script/Grass script. The reading club of Song dynasty era cash coins exist in top-bottom-right-left and top-right-bottom-left orders. [ 59 ] list of cash coins produced by the Northern Song dynasty : [ 60 ] [ 1 ] [ 3 ]

Sui heathen minority during the Northern Song dynasty [edit ]

In 2004 a mint produced by the Sui people of Guizhou was discovered dating to the Northern Song dynasty most probable produced between 1008 and 1016, this coin had the dedication dà zhōng xiáng fú ( 大中祥符 ) on one side and the word “ wealth ” written in Sui script on the other english, as this is the only acknowledge coin produced by the Sui people it established that they do n’t have a numismatic tradition like the Han Chinese have. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] [ 66 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Years of production Emperor Image
Dazhong Xiangfu 大中祥符 1008–1016 Zhenzong Dazhong Xiangfu (大中祥符) written in Sui script - Primaltrek 01.jpg

Great Shu Kingdom [edit ]

In the year 993 a group of tea farmers and landless tenant farmers under the leadership if Wang Xiaobo rebelled against the Northern Song dynasty, in the year 994 after Wang Xiaobo died his brother-in-law Li Shun proclaimed himself to be the “ King of the Great Shu Kingdom “ ( 大蜀王, dà shǔ wáng ) in Chengdu after he captured the city ( “ Shu ” being an archaic name for Sichuan ). Li Shun was defeated and killed in the year 995. During his menstruation he used the reign era and produced cash coins with this “ Yingyun ” ( 應運, yìng yùn ) inscription while after his death his former subordinates used the Yinggan ( 應感 ) dedication. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] [ 69 ] list of cash coins issued by the Great Shu Kingdom : [ 71 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese King Image
Yingyun Tongbao 應運通寶 应运通宝 Li Shun (李顺)
Yingyun Yuanbao 應運元寶 应运元宝 Li Shun (李顺)
Yinggan Tongbao 應感通寶 应感通宝 None

Southern Song dynasty [edit ]

Under the Southern Song dynasty it became accustomed to add the date of exit on the inverse of the mint and as copper shortages and phenomena known as “ currency famines ” ( 錢荒 ) plagued the domain both iron cash coins and newspaper money ( in the form of Jiaozi, Guanzi, and Huizi notes ) became more coarse leading to a decline of the production of bronze neologism. list of cash coins produced by the Southern Song dynasty : [ 1 ] [ 3 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Scripts Period minted Emperor Image
Jianyan Tongbao 建炎通寶 建炎通宝 Regular script, Seal script 1127–1130 Gaozong S585 SongSud GaoZong JianYan H1726 1ar85 (8823182282).jpg
Jianyan Yuanbao 建炎元寶 建炎元宝 Regular script, Seal script 1127–1130 Gaozong
Jianyan Zhongbao 建炎重寶 建炎重宝 Seal script 1127–1130 Gaozong Jian Yan Zhong Bao (建炎重寶) - 3 Cash (Seal script) - Scott Semans.jpg
Shaoxing Tongbao 紹興通寶 绍兴通宝 Regular script, Seal script 1131–1162 Gaozong Shao Hsing T'ung Pao - John Ferguson.jpg
Shaoxing Yuanbao 紹興元寶 绍兴元宝 Regular script 1131–1162 Gaozong S494 SongSud GaoZong ShaoXing H1745 1ar85 (9016774601).jpg
Longxing Tongbao 隆興通寶 隆兴通宝 Regular script, Seal script 1163–1164 Xiaozong
Longxing Yuanbao 隆興元寶 隆兴元宝 Regular script, Seal script 1163–1164 Xiaozong Long Xing Yuan Bao (隆興元寶) - Regular script - Scott Semans.jpg
Qiandao Tongbao 乾道通寶 干道通宝 Regular script 1165–1173 Xiaozong
Qiandao Yuanbao 乾道元寶 干道元宝 Regular script 1165–1173 Xiaozong Qian Dao Yuan Bao (乾道元寶) - Scott Semans 01.jpg
Chunxi Tongbao 淳熙通寶 淳熙通宝 Regular script 1174–1189 Xiaozong S593 SongSud XiaoZong Chunxi H17304 1ar85 (9171759443).jpg
Chunxi Yuanbao 淳熙元寶 淳熙元宝 Regular script, Seal script 1174–1189 Xiaozong S500 SongSud XiaoZong Chunxi H17198 1ar85 (9024890827).jpg
Shaoxi Tongbao 紹熙通寶 绍熙通宝 Regular script, Seal script 1190–1194 Guangzong Shao Xi Tong Bao - 2 Cash (Iron) - Scott Semans.jpg
Shaoxi Yuanbao 紹熙元寶 绍熙元宝 Regular script, Seal script 1190–1194 Guangzong S502 SongSud GuangZong ShaoXi 1190 1194 (6966389284).jpg
Qingyuan Tongbao 慶元通寶 庆元通宝 Regular script 1195–1200 Ningzong S594 SongSud NingZong Qingyuan H17395 1ar85 (9182388551).jpg
Qingyuan Yuanbao 慶元元寶 庆元元宝 Regular script 1195–1200 Ningzong
Jiatai Tongbao 嘉泰通寶 嘉泰通宝 Regular script 1201–1204 Ningzong S504 SongSud NingZong JiaTai H17485 1ar85 (9046944101).jpg
Jiatai Yuanbao 嘉泰元寶 嘉泰元宝 Regular script 1201–1204 Ningzong
Kaixi Tongbao 開禧通寶 开禧通宝 Regular script 1205–1207 Ningzong Kai Xi Tong Bao - 2 Cash (Iron) - Scott Semans.jpg
Kaixi Yuanbao 開禧元寶 开禧元宝 Regular script 1205–1207 Ningzong
Shengsong Yuanbao 聖宋元寶 圣宋元宝 Regular script 1210 Ningzong
Shengsong Zhongbao 聖宋重寶 圣宋重宝 Regular script 1210 Ningzong Sheng Song Zhong Bao (聖宋重寶) - Iron 5 Cash - Scott Semans.jpg
Jiading Tongbao 嘉定通寶 嘉定通宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong S595 SongSud NingZong Jiading H17589 1ar85 (9174640457).jpg
Jiading Zhongbao 嘉定重寶 嘉定重宝 Regular script, seal script 1208–1224 Ningzong Jia Ding Zhong Bao (嘉定重寶) - IRON 5 Cash, ABRL, Seal script, Rev.Xing & 5. 34.2 mm. (S950) - Scott Semans.jpg
Jiading Yuanbao 嘉定元寶 嘉定元宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong Jia Ding Yuan Bao - 2 Cash (Iron) - Scott Semans.jpg
Jiading Dabao 嘉定大寶 嘉定大宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Chongbao 嘉定崇寶 嘉定崇宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Quanbao 嘉定全寶 嘉定全宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Yongbao 嘉定永寶 嘉定永宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong Jiading Yongbao (嘉定永寶) - Artron.webp
Jiading Zhenbao 嘉定真寶 嘉定真宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Xinbao 嘉定新寶 嘉定新宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Anbao 嘉定安寶 嘉定安宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Longbao 嘉定隆寶 嘉定隆宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Quanbao 嘉定泉寶 嘉定泉宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Zhengbao 嘉定正寶 嘉定正宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Hongbao 嘉定洪寶 嘉定洪宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Wanbao 嘉定万寶 嘉定万宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Zhibao 嘉定之寶 嘉定之宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong Jia Ding Zhi Bao (嘉定之寶) - IRON 2 Cash, ABRL, Rev. Li zhlu xing shi (but barely visible). 31 mm (S940v) - Scott Semans.jpg
Jiading Zhenbao 嘉定珍寶 嘉定珍宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Xingbao 嘉定興寶 嘉定兴宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong Jia Ding Xing Bao (嘉定興寶) - IRON 5 Cash, ABRL, Rev. Zheng & official 5. 34.6 mm (S953) - Scott Semans.jpg
Jiading Yongbao[72] 嘉定用寶 嘉定用宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Zhibao 嘉定至寶 嘉定至宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Jiading Fengbao 嘉定封寶 嘉定封宝 Regular script 1208–1224 Ningzong
Baoqing Yuanbao 寶慶元寶 宝庆元宝 Regular script 1225–1227 Lizong Bao Qing Yuan Bao (寶慶元寶) - Iron - Scott Semans.jpg
Dasong Tongbao 大宋通寶 大宋通宝 Regular script 1225 Lizong
Dasong Yuanbao 大宋元寶 大宋元宝 Regular script 1225–1227 Lizong Da Song Yuan Bao - Scott Semans.jpg
Shaoding Tongbao 紹定通寶 绍定通宝 Regular script 1228–1233 Lizong S501 SongSud LiZong ShaoDing H17700 1ar85 (9049358032).jpg
Shaoding Yuanbao 紹定元寶 绍定元宝 Regular script 1228–1233 Lizong Shao Ding Yuan Bao (紹定元寶) - Iron 3 Cash - Scott Semans.jpg
Duanping Tongbao 端平通寶 端平通宝 Regular script 1234–1236 Lizong S620 DuanPing H17741 1ar85 (10246361604).jpg
Duanping Yuanbao 端平元寶 端平元宝 Regular script 1234–1236 Lizong Duan Ping Yuan Bao - Scott Semans.jpg
Duanping Zhongbao 端平重寶 端平重宝 Regular script 1234–1236 Lizong
Jiaxi Tongbao 嘉熙通寶 嘉熙通宝 Regular script 1237–1240 Lizong S258 SongSud LiZong JiaXi H17756 1ar85 (8996837238).jpg
Jiaxi Zhongbao 嘉熙重寶 嘉熙重宝 Regular script 1237–1240 Lizong Jia Xi Zhong Bao (嘉熙重寶) - 5 Cash - Scott Semans 02.jpg
Chunyou Tongbao 淳祐通寶 淳祐通宝 Regular script 1241–1252 Lizong
Chunyou Yuanbao 淳祐元寶 淳祐元宝 Regular script 1241–1252 Lizong
Huangsong Yuanbao 皇宋元寶 皇宋元宝 Regular script 1253–1258 Lizong S538 SongSud LiZong BaoYou H17817 1ar85 (9160561738).jpg
Kaiqing Tongbao 開慶通寶 开庆通宝 Regular script 1259 Lizong Kai Qing Tong Bao (開慶通寶) - 1st year - Scott Semans 02.jpg
Jingding Yuanbao 景定元寶 景定元宝 Regular script 1260–1264 Lizong Jingding Yuanbao.jpg
Xianchun Yuanbao 咸淳元寶 咸淳元宝 Regular script 1265–1274 Duzong Xianchun Yuanbao.jpg

The Southern Song dynasty General Liu Guangshi ( 劉光世 ) besides cast limited cash coins with the inscription “ Zhaona Xinbao “ ( 招納信寶 ) to recruit Jin soldiers and allow them to defect to the Song Army, [ 73 ] [ 74 ] [ 75 ] however these were n’t meant for circulation. [ 76 ]

Northern Liao dynasty [edit ]

A phone number of cash coins were reported to have the reign titles of Northern Liao dynasty emperors, however as no historic records mention them the authenticity of these coins has been called into question. list of cash coins presumably issued by the Khitan Northern Liao dynasty : [ 77 ] [ 78 ] [ 79 ] [ 80 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Years of production Emperor Image
Jianfu Yuanbao 建福元寳 建福元宝 1122 Xuanzong
Dexing Tongbao 德興通寳 德兴通宝 1122–1123 Yelü Yali
Dexing Yuanbao 德興元寳 德兴元宝 1122–1123 Yelü Yali
Shenli Tongbao 神曆通寳 神历通宝 1123 Yingzong
Shenli Yuanbao 神曆元寳 神历元宝 1123 Yingzong

westerly Liao dynasty ( Qara Khitai ) [edit ]

In November 2008, October 2010, and February 2011 three specimens of cash coins produced by the western Liao were unearthed in Kyrgyzstan, the first specimen of these cash coins were initially thought to bear the inscription “ Jixing Yuanbao ” ( 績興元寳 ) but after the moment one was unearthed its dedication was well sympathize. [ 81 ]

westerly Xia dynasty [edit ]

The Tangut Western Xia dynasty produced both cash coins with chinese and Tangut inscriptions. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] Despite issuing coins the economy of the Tangut Empire by and large relied on barter which is why western Xia era coins today are rare .

With Tangut inscriptions [edit ]

Coins with Tangut inscriptions : [ 85 ] [ 86 ] [ n ]

Inscription
(Tangut)
Inscription
(Mandarin)
Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Years of casting Emperor Image
śjɨj ljo ljɨ̣ dzjɨj ( 𗼃𗼕𘏨𘔭) Fu Sheng Bao Qian 福聖寶錢 福圣宝钱 1053–1056 Yizong Tangut Fusheng Baoqian coin.jpg
tha nej ljɨ̣ dzjɨj ( 𘜶𗵐𘏨𘔭) Da An Bao Qian 大安寶錢 大安宝钱 1074–1084 Huizong Tangut Da'an Baoqian coin.jpg
tśhja bio̲ ljɨ̣ dzjɨj ( 𗣼𘝯𘏨𘔭) Zhen Guan Bao Qian 貞觀寶錢 贞观宝钱 1101–1113 Chongzong
tśhja mji̲ ljɨ̣ dzjɨj ( 𗣼𘇚𘏨𘔭

)

Zheng De Bao Qian 正德寶錢 正德宝钱 1127–1134 Chongzong
tshjwu ꞏwu ljɨ̣ dzjɨj ( 𘀗𘑨𘏨𘔭) Qian You Bao Qian 乾祐寶錢 乾祐宝钱 1170–1193 Renzong Tangut Qianyou Baoqian coin 2.jpg
ŋwər ljwu ljɨ̣ dzjɨj ( 𘓺𘅝𘏨𘔭) Tian Qing Bao Qian 天慶寶錢 天庆宝钱 1194–1206 Huanzong Tangut Tianqing Baoqian coin.jpg

With taiwanese inscriptions [edit ]

Jin dynasty ( 1115–1234 ) [edit ]

Cash coins produced by the Jurchen -led Jin dynasty compared to earlier Liao dynasty neologism are both of higher quality, and measure ; this is because the Jurchens chose to model their coins more close after the Song ‘s both in production as superficially in its calligraphic vogue. tilt of cash coins produced by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty : [ 1 ] [ 3 ]

Li Pobei [edit ]

During a Jin invasion that occurred in November 1125, Li Pobei ( 李婆備 ) took advantage of this site and rebelled against the Northern Song dynasty. He is known to have cast cash coins with the inscription “ Taiping Tongbao ” ( 太平通寶 ). [ 89 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Denominations Years of production Leader Image
Taiping Tongbao 太平通寶 太平通宝 1 wén, 2 wén, 5 wén 1127–1130 Li Pobei

Great Qi dynasty [edit ]

In 1130 during the Jin–Song Wars the Jin dynasty had set up a second puppet state called “ Da Qi ” ( after the fail first creature state of matter, Da Chu ), this creature express briefly produced its own coins until it was defeated by the Song in 1137. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] Coins produced by the brief Jurchen vassal express admit :

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Script Emperor Image
Fu Chang Tong Bao 阜昌通寶 阜昌通宝 Regular script, Seal script Liu Yu
Fu Chang Yuan Bao 阜昌元寶 阜昌元宝 Regular script, Seal script Liu Yu
Fu Chang Zhong Bao 阜昌重寶 阜昌重宝 Regular script, Seal script Liu Yu Fu Chang Zhong Bao.png

Eastern Xia dynasty [edit ]

During a mint hoard in the Russian Far East in 2011 seven cash coins were discovered that bore an inscription which was previously strange, these coins bore a claim alluding to a maverick state that was founded during the Mongol seduction of the Jin dynasty. list of cash coins issued by the Jurchen -led Eastern Xia dynasty : [ 92 ] [ 93 ]

Mongol Empire ( prior to the constitution of the Yuan dynasty ) [edit ]

Cash coins issued by the Mongols before 1230 :

Obverse inscription
(Romanisation)
Reverse Notes Image
大朝通寶
(Dachao Tongbao)
Unknown
Arabic characters
This coins was possibly cast between 1206 and 1227 in Karakorum by Genghis Khan as “大朝” was a name the Mongols gave themselves.
The coin is mostly found made from silver although copper variants exist.
Da Chao Tong Bao.jpg
大朝金合
(Dachao Jinhe)
Blank The attribution of this coins to the Mongols is doubtful as the name “大朝” was used by various countries that bordered China. This coin was first mentioned in the Record of Coins which was published around 1094.
Peng Xinwei attributes this coin to the Liao dynasty.
支鈔半分
(Zhichao Banfen)
Blank Zhichao Banfen (支鈔半分) could be translated as “Exchange for paper money half a fen [of silver]”.
The inscription could alternatively read Jiaochao Banfen (交鈔半分).

Cash coins issued by the Mongol Empire while it occupied Jin dynasty territory ( circa 1230–1280 ) :

Obverse inscription
(Romanisation)
Reverse Notes Image
大觀通寶
(Daguan Tongbao)
Blank This cash coins has rather broad rims.
大觀通寶
(Daguan Tongbao)

(Zhong)
The “中” is written in seal script and is above the square center hole on the reverse.
大觀通寶
(Daguan Tongbao)
半錢
(Ban Qian)
The reverse inscription indicates that this cash coin had a nominal value of half a qián of silver.
大觀通寶
(Daguan Tongbao)
Blank This is a cash coin of diminutive size with the Chinese character “觀” written in an imperfect way.
大觀通寶
(Daguan Tongbao)
Dot pattern The reverse of this coin is completely covered with dots.
大觀通寶
(Daguan Tongbao)
Blank The inscription is written in a very barbarous manner.

yuan dynasty [edit ]

During the Yuan dynasty, wallpaper money such as the Jiaochao wholly replaced copper neologism, during times of ostentation Temple coins issued by Buddhist temples became the de facto currency. Under Külüg Khan a large numeral of cash coins were issued to pay for the state ‘s expenditures but these got phased out in favor of paper currency, it was n’t until the reign of Toghon Temür that the Yuan dynasty attempted to produce cash coins at a large scale again. tilt of cash coins issued by the yuan dynasty : [ 95 ] [ 96 ] [ o ]

Rebels of the Yuan dynasty [edit ]

During the Red Turban rebellion organised by the White Lotus company ; many of its leaders proclaimed their own kingdoms and empires that ruled over unlike regions of China, the most successful of these was Zhu Yuanzhang ‘s Ming dynasty which would unify China. Though the majority of these countries were ephemeral some did produce their own coinage. [ 98 ]

Ming dynasty [edit ]

Under the Ming dynasty the policy of predominantly using newspaper money ( such as the Da Ming Baochao banknotes ) which was started under the Mongols would continue until 1505 when spanish dollars and other silver coins became the dominant allele currency. native production of cash coins had ceased between 1375 and 1376, from 1387 until 1379, from 1393 ( as paper money superseded shed neologism completely ) until 1433, and finally from 1435 until 1503. Yongle Tongbao cash coins were largely cast for alien trade. [ citation needed ] From the Ming dynasty onwards only period titles were used for mint inscriptions and these period titles would ( normally ) remain changeless throughout the predominate of an Emperor. [ 2 ] [ 1 ]
note that under the reign of the Zhengde Emperor no copper-alloy cash coins were minted however a very bombastic numeral of Zhengde Tongbao ( 正德通寶 ) coin amulets exist, the production of these coin-like amulets started from the deep Ming dynasty menstruation and these amulets are still being produced today .

Guizhou local issues [edit ]

During the Hongzhi menstruation from 1488 until 1505 some Tribal Commissioners in the state of Guizhou issued their own cash coins, quite than being bases on reign titles the inscriptions were based on place names .

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Emperor Image
Shuiguan Tongbao 水官通寶 水官通宝 Hongzhi Emperor Shuiguan Tongbao - Scott Semans.jpg
Taiguan Tongbao 太官通寶 太官通宝 Hongzhi Emperor Taiguan Tongbao (太官通寶) - Scott Semans.jpg
Huoguan Tongbao 火官通寶 火官通宝 Hongzhi Emperor
Dading Tongbao 大定通寶 大定通宝 Hongzhi Emperor Dading Tongbao (Guizhou local issue) - Scott Semans.jpg
Taiding Tongbao 太定通寶 太定通宝 Hongzhi Emperor S559 HongZhi Ming Dali 1 (8188627066).jpg
Taizi Tongbao 太子通寶 太子通宝 Hongzhi Emperor

Yunnan local anesthetic issues [edit ]

Under the Ming dynasty the territory which used to belong to the Dali Kingdom cast their own coins, these cash coins were issued in the state of Yunnan under the reign of the Hongzhi Emperor and are known to be of poor craft and blunt vomit, it is often unknown if these cash coins were cast by the Bai people in Dali, the Hmong tribe survive in the area, or one of the many early tribes that live in Yunnan as records of their vomit were n’t bring kept. [ 102 ] Many of these cash coins were besides cast by using regular cash coins as “ mother coins ” which explains their rather crude appearances. These Yunnan local issue cash coins include : [ 103 ] [ 104 ] [ 105 ] [ 106 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Emperor Image
Huoping Xinbao 火平信寶 火平信宝 Hongzhi Emperor S553 Ming Dali HuoPing 1 (8112001575).jpg
Hongwu Tongbao 洪武通寶 洪武通宝 Hongzhi Emperor
Hongzhi Tongbao 弘治通寶 弘治通宝 Hongzhi Emperor
Taiping Tongbao 太平通寶 太平通宝 Hongzhi Emperor Taiping Tongbao (太平通寶) - Probably Mongol era Dali issue - Scott Semans.jpg
Dazhou Tongbao 大周通寶 大周通宝 Hongzhi Emperor
Kaiyuan Tongbao 開元通寶 开元通宝 Hongzhi Emperor

Ming-Qing transitional period [edit ]

This is a number of cash coins produced during the transition from Ming to Qing .

southerly Ming dynasty [edit ]

list of cash coins produced by the Southern Ming dynasty : [ 107 ] [ 108 ]

Kingdom of Tungning ( Taiwan ) [edit ]

Under Koxinga the Kingdom of Tungning ( which was a state firm to the Southern Ming dynasty ) had ordered Yongli Tongbao cash coins to be produced ( presumably ) in Nagasaki, these coins circulated entirely in Taiwan. The production of these coins lasted until 1682 .

Rebels [edit ]

late Jin dynasty ( 1616–1636 ) [edit ]

The surveil coins were issued by the Later Jin dynasty : [ 115 ] [ 116 ] [ 117 ]

Inscription Latin script Denominations Years of mintage Khan Image
ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ
ᡶᡠᠯᡳᠩᡤᠠ
ᡥᠠᠨ
ᠵᡳᡴᠠ
Abkai fulingga han jiha 1 wén 1616–1626 Abkai fulingga Khan Nurhachi Coin, Aphai fulingga han chiha.jpg
天命通寳 Tiān Mìng Tōng Bǎo 1 wén 1616–1626 Abkai fulingga Khan Nurhachi Coin. Tianming Tongbao.jpg
ᠰᡠᡵᡝ
ᡥᠠᠨ
ᠨᡳ
ᠵᡳᡴᠠ
Sure han ni jiha 10 wén 1627–1643 Sure Khan Sure han ni jiha (ᠰᡠᡵᡝ ᡥᠠᠨ ᠨᡳ ᠵᡳᡴᠠ) - Scott Semans.png

A cash mint with the inscription “ Tiancong Tongbao ” ( 天聰通寳 ) reported to be in the denominations of 1 wén and 10 wén has besides been attributed to Hong Taiji, however the authenticity of this mint is doubtful .

Qing dynasty [edit ]

Qing dynasty earned run average cash coins generally bear the reign title of the Emperor in Chinese characters, with only a individual change of reign title occurring with the Qixiang Emperor becoming the Tongzhi Emperor by decision of his mother, Empress Dowager Cixi. [ 1 ] [ 119 ] [ 120 ]

xinjiang issues [edit ]

Certain parts of Xinjiang under Qing rule had a monetary system break from that was separate from that of China proper, this was largely due to the fact that the area which once belonged to Dzungaria paid with pūl coins which were made from about pure bull, when some these pūl coins were melted down to make “ bolshevik cash coins ” the pūl-system was basically continued and 1 “ red cash coin ” had a value of 10 regular cash coins. Another differentiating feature of Xinjiang as a unharmed was that under the Jiaqing Emperor it was ordered that 1 in 5 coins produced in Xinjiang should bear the inscription Qianlong Tongbao ( 乾隆通寶 ) to honour the Qianlong Emperor, and celebrate his seduction of the region. New obverse inscriptions were introduced by the Kucha mint during the early twentieth century however the production of “ red cash coins ” with these raw inscriptions did n’t survive identical long as they featured merely two unlike dates from the chinese cyclic calendar during the Guangxu earned run average and the Kucha mint closed in 1909. The following “ red cash coins ” with new inscriptions were produced by the Kucha mint in xinjiang : [ 122 ]

Inscription Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Denominations Years of mintage Emperor Image
Guangxu Dingwei 光緒丁未 光绪丁未 10 wén 1907 Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Wushen 光緒戊申 光绪戊申 10 wén 1908 Guangxu Emperor

Rashidin Khan Khoja [edit ]

During the Dungan disgust from 1862 to 1877, Sultan Rashidin Khan Khoja proclaimed a Jihad against the Qing dynasty in 1862, he issued Chinese-style cash coins minted at the Aksu and Kucha mints with exclusive Arabic inscriptions. [ 124 ]

Obverse inscription
(Romanised)
Reverse inscription
(Romanised)
Sultan Mint Years of production Image
سيد غازي راشدين خان
(Sayyid Ghazi Rashidin Khan)
زرب دار السلطانات كوجا
(Zarb dar al-Sultanat Kuqa)
Rashidin Khan Khoja Kucha 1864–1865
سيد غازي راشدين خان
(Sayyid Ghazi Rashidin Khan)[q]
زرب دار السلطانات كوجا
(Zarb dar al-Sultanat Kuqa)
Rashidin Khan Khoja Kucha 1865–1867 Rashidin Khan Khoja.jpg
سيد غازي راشدين خان
(Sayyid Ghazi Rashidin Khan)
زرب دار السلطانات أقسو
(Zarb dar al-Sultanat Aqsu)
Rashidin Khan Khoja Aksu 1864–1867

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom [edit ]

In 1850 the Taiping Rebellion was started by the head of the God worshippers Hong Xiuquan who founded the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, this rebellion lasted until 1864. Although identical little documentation exists about the coinage manufactured by the Taiping rebels, it is known that in June 1853 the occupying Taiping rebels ordered copper workers in Tianjing ( deliver day Nanjing ) with the skills to cast coins to open fresh furnaces for the production of cash coins with the inscription Tianguo Shengbao that were reported to be “ the size of foreign coins ” ( Mexican guinea-bissau peso ), these coins were reported to be of very poor people craft and their product was quickly discontinued and although no coins fitting this description are extend it is known that Taiping rebels in other areas and provinces did cast coinage. The following cash coins are known to have been cast by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom :

Obverse inscription
(Romanised)
Reverse inscription
(Romanised)
Denominations Years of production Image
天囯
(Tianguo)
通寳
(Tongbao)
10 wén 1853–1855 Tian Guo Tong Bao.jpg
天囯
(Tianguo)
聖寶
(Shengbao)
10 wén 1856–1860
天囯聖寶
(Tianguo Shengbao)
太平
(Taiping)
1 wén 1858–1864
天囯聖寶
(Tianguo Shengbao)
5 wén 1850s
太平天囯
(Taiping Tianguo)
聖寶
(Shengbao)
1 wén, 5 wén, 10 wén, 50 wén 1860–1862
天囯太平
(Tianguo Taiping)
聖寶
(Shengbao)
1 wén 1861–1864
太平聖寶
(Taiping Shengbao)
天囯
(Tianguo)
1 wén, 5 wén 1861–1864
太平聖宝
(Taiping Shengbao)[2]
天囯
(Tianguo)
1860s
太平
(Taiping)[126][r]
聖寶
(Shengbao)
1860s

Heaven and Earth Society, Shanghai Small Swords Society, and other secret societies during the Taiping rebellion [edit ]

At the prison term of the Taiping rebellion a large count of secret societies such as the Heaven and Earth Society took advantage of the chaos and started to flourish, these confidential societies all claimed to want to overthrow the Qing dynasty and restore the Ming dynasty, for this rationality many of the coins cast by these unavowed societies contain hide messages such as some of them containing characters from the reign titles of Ming dynasty emperors .

Shanghai Small Swords Society [edit ]

The Shanghai Small Swords Society under the leadership of Liu Lichuan seized control condition of the city of Shanghai in September 1853 and awarded themselves the period title of “ Tianyun ” ( 天運 ), as Shanghai had a set of gold and silver medal but not much cash coins the rebels confiscated all scrap copper they could find and this was all frame into cash coins with the dedication “ Taiping Tongbao ” ( 太平通寶 ) on the obverse and a sunday and a crescent on the reverse, the sun ( 日 ) and lunar month ( 月 ) symbolised their purpose on restoring the Ming ( 明 ). As merchants who traded with Shanghai entered the Qing those found carrying cash coins issued by rebels were arrested and put on trial and after a few were executed the Shanghai Small Swords society decided that these coins were basically useless and decided to cast coins based on the Xianfeng reign title .

Obverse inscription
(Romanised)
Reverse inscription
(Romanised)
Calligraphic style Years of production Image
太平通寶
(Taiping Tongbao)
Northern Song era Li script 1854–1855
太平通寶
(Taiping Tongbao)
Crescent (moon) above.
明 (Ming) below.
Northern Song era Li script 1854–1855
太平通寶
(Taiping Tongbao)
Sun (circle) above,
Crescent (moon) below.
Contemporary regular script 1854–1855 Taiping Tongbao (太平通寶) - Shanghai Small Swords Society - Liuliang Yu and Hong Yu 01.png
太平通寶
(Taiping Tongbao)
ᠪᠣᠣ
ᠶᡡᠨ
(Boo Yūn)
Contemporary regular script 1854–1855

other secret societies [edit ]

Obverse inscription
(Romanised)
Reverse inscription
(Romanised)
Years of production Secret society Image
太平通寶
(Taiping Tongbao)

(Wen) above.
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
太平通寶
(Taiping Tongbao)

(Wen) sideways right.
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
開元通寶
(Kaiyuan Tongbao)

(Wu) above.
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
開元通寶
(Kaiyuan Tongbao)

(Wu) sideways right.
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
天朝通寶
(Tianchao Tongbao)

(Yong) above.
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
天朝通寶
(Tianchao Tongbao)

(Yong) upside down below.
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
黃帝通寶
(Huangdi Tongbao)

(Sheng) above.
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
黃帝通寶
(Huangdi Tongbao)

(Sheng) sideways right.
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
黃帝通寶
(Huangdi Tongbao)
ᠪᠣᠣ 浙
(Boo Zhe)
1858–1864 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
義記金錢
(Yiji Jinqian)[129][130]
Two intertwined lozenges on the right and left side. 1858–1863 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會) Yi Ji Jin Qian.png
義記金錢
(Yiji Jinqian)
The Chinese character “離” () above and two intertwined lozenges on the right and left side. 1858–1863 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
義記金錢
(Yiji Jinqian)[131]
震忠團練
(Zhenzhong Tuanlian)
1858–1863 Small Sword and Heaven and Earth Societies (天地會)
明道通寶
(Mingdao Tongbao)

(Tian)
1850s The Triad Society (三合會)

early contemporary rebellions [edit ]

other than secret societies several early rebellions cast their own coinages contemporary to the Taiping rebellion, in Guizhou the rebel Zhang Baoshan who claimed descent from the Hongwu Emperor is said by David Hartill to have cast the Sitong Tongbao ( 嗣統通寶 ) cash coins according to two references. Li Wenmao who was the drawing card of the Triad Society in the province of Guangdong proclaimed half to be “ the King who shall restore peace ” ( 平靖王 ) in March 1857 but his rebellion got suppressed by the Qing in 1858. The coinage cast by Li Wenmao much contains the fictional character “ 勝 ” ( victory or to vanquish ) which is often found in lodges of Tiandihui groups creating the dedication “ 勝寶 ” ( victorious treasure or vanquishing treasure ), meanwhile as the guerrilla tactics of the Guangdong Triad relied on having their forces be divided into a “ leave flank ”, “ right flank ”, “ center flank ”, “ front flank ”, and “ raise flank ” this is reflected in the invert inscriptions of the coins cast by this rebellion as “ 营 ” ( garrison or camp ) is accompanied by which flank the garrison belonged to .

Obverse inscription
(Romanised)
Reverse inscription
(Romanised)
Years of production Rebel leader Image
平靖通寶
(Pingjing Tongbao)

(Zhong) in seal script on the right.
1857–1858 Li Wenmao (李文茂)
平靖勝寶
(Pingjing Shengbao)
中营
(Zhongying)
1857–1858 Li Wenmao (李文茂)
平靖勝寶
(Pingjing Shengbao)
前营
(Qianying)
1857–1858 Li Wenmao (李文茂)
平靖勝寶
(Pingjing Shengbao)
後营
(Houying)
1857–1858 Li Wenmao (李文茂)
平靖勝寶
(Pingjing Shengbao)
左营
(Zuoying)
1857–1858 Li Wenmao (李文茂)
平靖勝寶
(Pingjing Shengbao)
右营
(Youying)
1857–1858 Li Wenmao (李文茂)
平靖勝寶
(Pingjing Shengbao)
御林軍
(Yulinjun)
1857–1858 Li Wenmao (李文茂)
平靖勝寶
(Pingjing Shengbao)
長勝軍
(Changshengjun)
1857–1858 Li Wenmao (李文茂)
嗣統通寶
(Sitong Tongbao)
1860–1863 Zhang Baoshan (張保山)

Republic of China [edit ]

chinese cash coins continued to be produced into the first class of the Republic of China until their production was completely phased out in 1912. A large phone number of trial coins were besides cast, however these were n’t ever officially issued. The follow cash coins were cast during the Republic of China in 1912 :

Inscription
(Obverse,
Reverse)
Traditional Chinese
(Obverse,
Reverse)
Simplified Chinese
(Obverse,
Reverse)
Issuing office Image
Fujian Tongbao,
1 cash
福建通寶,
一文
福建通宝,
一文
Fujian province
Fujian Tongbao,
2 cash
福建通寶,
二文
福建通宝,
二文
Fujian province Fujian Tongbao - Scott Semans 01.jpg
Minguo Tongbao,
Dongchuan
民國通寶,
東川
民国通宝,
东川
Dongchuan, Yunnan Minkuo Tungpao (David Hartill 431.23.7).png
Minguo Tongbao,
10 cash
民國通寶,
當十
民国通宝,
当十
Dongchuan, Yunnan Min Guo Tong Bao 10 cash.png

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^ A version of this mint exists with the inscription reversed .
  2. ^ A interpretation of this coin exists with the dedication reversed .
  3. ^ “ yuan Fa ” ( 圜法 ) was a contemporary term for early round neologism .
  4. ^, “auspicious”) is on its reverse side. As this was the first coin with a squarely hole this could be considered to be the beginning “ true ” chinese cash coin. This inscription was once read as “ Yi Dao ” ( 一刀, “ one knife “ ). A version exists where the dedication is reversed, and one where the character “ 吉 ” (, “ auspicious ” ) is on its reverse side .
  5. ^ The “ Liu ” ( 六 ) was once read as “ Bao ” ( 寶, “ treasure ” ) .
  6. ^ Could alternatively be read as “ 兩錙 ” .
  7. ^ Some diachronic records state that San Zhu cash coins were produced between 140 BC until 136 BC .
  8. ^ A “ fathead eye ” random variable of ghe Tai Ping Bai Qian where the “ Qian ” ( 錢 ) is abbreviated as “ Jin ” ( 金 ) .
  9. ^ This is presumed based on archaeological evidence .
  10. ^ This is the beginning recorded use of a time period deed on a taiwanese cash coin .
  11. ^ merely one specimen of this cash coin is known to exist .
  12. ^ A rare variety show of this cash coin has its inscription written in Nine-fold navy seal handwriting ( 九叠篆 ) which was a style of chinese calligraphy used during this period that was normally lone reserved for official Song dynasty seals .
  13. ^ These cash coins were cast to celebrate the menstruation title of Jian Zhing Jing Guo which was considered excessively long to use as an inscription and these cash coins were not made for general circulation. The Jian Guo Tong Bao is notably made from white copper .
  14. ^ The transliterations are those from Tangutologist Li Fanwen, as opposed to David Hartill ‘s custom “ Lee Ndzen ” and like phonetics which are common in the numismatics community .
  15. ^ taiwanese, and ‘Phags-pa scripts would by and large appear on the obverse of these coins, while Mongol script would appear on the reverse and would serve as a mint scar ( and in one example the Jurchen, Uighur, and Tangut scripts ) ; Kublai Khan ‘s Zhong Tong Yuan Bao ( 中統元寶 ) was the only coin that contained Seal script, all other chinese inscriptions during the Mongol time period were written in regular script
  16. ^Qián Lóng Tōng Bǎo (乾隆通寶) continued to be produced until the fall of the Qing dynasty to commemorate the regions annexation under the Qianlong Emperor, 1 in every 5 coins cast in Xinjiang bear this inscription regardless of era. In Xinjiang coins bearing the inscription ( 乾隆通寶 ) continued to be produced until the capitulation of the Qing dynasty to commemorate the regions annexation under the Qianlong Emperor, 1 in every 5 coins cast in Xinjiang bear this dedication regardless of era .
  17. ^ The characters on this series are larger than the previous one which featured rather small Arabic writing .
  18. ^ These are possibly the rare of all cash coins issued by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

References [edit ]

Sources [edit ]

  • Hartill, David (2005). Cast Chinese Coins: A Historical Catalogue. Trafford. ISBN 978-1-4120-5466-9.
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