Trang chủ » blog » The Legislative Branch

The Legislative Branch

Established by Article I of the Constitution, the Legislative Branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together form the United States Congress. The fundamental law grants Congress the exclusive agency to enact legislation and announce war, the right to confirm or reject many presidential appointments, and hearty fact-finding powers .
The House of Representatives is made up of 435 elective members, divided among the 50 states in proportion to their entire population. In summation, there are 6 non-voting members, representing the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and four early territories of the United States. The presiding officer of the chamber is the Speaker of the House, elected by the Representatives. He or she is third base in the channel of succession to the Presidency .
Members of the House are elected every two years and must be 25 years of old age, a U.S. citizen for at least seven years, and a house physician of the state ( but not inevitably the district ) they represent .
The House has several powers assigned entirely to it, including the office to initiate tax income bills, impeach federal officials, and elect the President in the case of an electoral college bind.

The Senate is composed of 100 Senators, 2 for each country. Until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913, Senators were chosen by submit legislatures, not by popular vote. Since then, they have been elected to six-year terms by the people of each country. Senator ‘s terms are staggered so that about one-third of the Senate is up for reelection every two years. Senators must be 30 years of age, U.S. citizens for at least nine years, and residents of the state of matter they represent .
The Vice President of the United States serves as President of the Senate and may cast the decisive vote in the event of a tie in the Senate .
The Senate has the sole office to confirm those of the President ‘s appointments that require accept, and to ratify treaties. There are, however, two exceptions to this predominate : the House must besides approve appointments to the Vice Presidency and any treaty that involves foreign deal. The Senate besides tries impeachment cases for federal officials referred to it by the House .
In order to pass legislation and send it to the President for his signature, both the House and the Senate must pass the same placard by majority vote. If the President vetoes a beak, they may override his veto by passing the bill again in each chamber with at least two-thirds of each body vote in favor .
The Legislative Process | Powers of Congress | Government Oversight

The Legislative Process

The first footfall in the legislative process is the introduction of a bill to Congress. Anyone can write it, but only members of Congress can introduce legislation. Some important bills are traditionally introduced at the request of the President, such as the annual federal budget. During the legislative work, however, the initial bill can undergo drastic changes .
After being introduced, a circular is referred to the appropriate committee for recapitulation. There are 17 Senate committees, with 70 subcommittees, and 23 House committees, with 104 subcommittees. The committees are not set in stone, but change in numeral and imprint with each modern Congress as required for the effective consideration of legislation. Each committee oversees a specific policy area, and the subcommittees take on more specialize policy areas. For example, the House Committee on Ways and Means includes subcommittees on Social Security and Trade .
A charge is first considered in a subcommittee, where it may be accepted, amended, or rejected wholly. If the members of the subcommittee agree to move a circular forward, it is reported to the wax committee, where the march is repeated again. Throughout this stage of the process, the committees and subcommittees call hearings to investigate the merits and flaws of the placard. They invite experts, advocates, and opponents to appear before the committee and provide testimony, and can compel people to appear using subpoena power if necessity .
If the full committee votes to approve the beak, it is reported to the floor of the House or Senate, and the majority party leadership decides when to place the poster on the calendar for consideration. If a circular is particularly press, it may be considered correct away. Others may wait for months or never be scheduled at all .
When the bill comes up for consideration, the House has a very integrated debate process. Each penis who wishes to speak only has a few minutes, and the total and kind of amendments are normally limited. In the Senate, argue on most bills is unlimited — Senators may speak to issues other than the bill under consideration during their speeches, and any amendment can be introduced. Senators can use this to filibuster bills under retainer, a operation by which a Senator delays a vote on a bill — and by propagation its passage — by refusing to stand down. A supermajority of 60 Senators can break a filibuster by invoking closure, or the cession of debate on the beak, and forcing a vote. Once argument is over, the votes of a simple majority passes the bill .
A bill must pass both houses of Congress before it goes to the President for consideration. Though the Constitution requires that the two bills have the accurate same wording, this rarely happens in practice. To bring the bills into conjunction, a Conference Committee is convened, consisting of members from both chambers. The members of the committee produce a league report, intended as the final version of the placard. Each chamber then votes again to approve the league report. Depending on where the bill originated, the concluding textbook is then enrolled by either the Clerk of the House or the Secretary of the Senate, and presented to the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate for their signatures. The bill is then sent to the President.

When receiving a circular from Congress, the President has several options. If the President agrees substantially with the bill, he or she may sign it into law, and the bill is then printed in the Statutes at Large. If the President believes the jurisprudence to be bad policy, he may veto it and send it back to Congress. Congress may override the veto with a two-thirds vote of each chamber, at which point the bill becomes police and is printed .
There are two other options that the President may exercise. If Congress is in session and the President takes no carry through within 10 days, the bill becomes law. If Congress adjourns before 10 days are astir and the President takes no action, then the beak dies and Congress may not vote to override. This is called a pouch veto, and if Congress hush wants to pass the legislation, they must begin the integral process afresh .

Powers of Congress

Congress, as one of the three coequal branches of government, is ascribed meaning powers by the Constitution. All legislative baron in the politics is vested in Congress, meaning that it is the alone partially of the government that can make new laws or switch existing laws. Executive Branch agencies issue regulations with the broad effect of law, but these are only under the authority of laws enacted by Congress. The President may veto bills Congress passes, but Congress may besides override a veto by a two-thirds right to vote in both the Senate and the House of Representatives .
article I of the Constitution enumerates the powers of Congress and the specific areas in which it may legislate. Congress is besides empowered to enact laws deemed “ necessary and proper ” for the execution of the powers given to any part of the politics under the Constitution .
part of Congress ‘s exert of legislative assurance is the administration of an annual budget for the government. To this end, Congress levies taxes and tariffs to provide fund for necessity government services. If enough money can not be raised to fund the politics, then Congress may besides authorize borrowing to make up the dispute. Congress can besides mandate outgo on particular items : legislatively directed spend, normally known as “ earmarks, ” specifies funds for a particular undertaking, rather than for a politics agency .
Both chambers of Congress have extensive fact-finding powers, and may compel the production of evidence or testimony toward whatever end they deem necessity. Members of Congress spend much of their clock holding hearings and investigations in committee. Refusal to cooperate with a congressional subpoena can result in charges of contempt of Congress, which could result in a prison condition .
The Senate maintains several powers to itself : It ratifies treaties by a two-thirds supermajority vote and confirms the appointments of the President by a majority vote. The accept of the House of Representatives is besides necessary for the ratification of trade agreements and the confirmation of the Vice President .
Congress besides holds the sole power to declare war .

Government Oversight

oversight of the executive arm is an authoritative Congressional check on the President ‘s exponent and a balance against his discretion in implementing laws and making regulations .
A major room that Congress conducts supervision is through hearings. The House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform and the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs are both devoted to overseeing and reform government operations, and each committee conducts oversight in its policy sphere.

Congress besides maintains an fact-finding arrangement, the Government Accountability Office ( GAO ). Founded in 1921 as the General Accounting Office, its original mission was to audit the budgets and fiscal statements sent to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. nowadays, the GAO audited account and generates reports on every view of the government, ensuring that taxpayer dollars are spent with the effectiveness and efficiency that the american people deserve .
The executive branch besides polices itself : sixty-four Inspectors General, each responsible for a different agency, regularly audit and report on the agencies to which they are attached .

source :
Category : Economy

Post navigation

Leave a Comment

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai.