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Coins of the Hawaiian dollar – Wikipedia

In 1847, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, under the reign of King Kamehaheha III, issued its foremost official coinage—a large one-cent copper penny—to alleviate the chronic dearth of modest denomination coins circulating in the hawaiian Islands. The next and last official coinage of the hawaiian Islands was minted in 1883, by King Kalākaua I ; however during the intervene period, the changing needs of the hawaiian Islands were met by circulating private-issued tokens and the coins of the United States of America. The follow is a list of know coins and tokens issued by the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and diverse occupation concerns during the period of 1847 through 1891. The referenced catalog numbers used in this article are from the ledger, Hawaiian Money: Standard Catalog: Second Edition, 1991 by Donald Medcalf and Ronald Russell. [ 1 ]

Kingdom of the hawaiian Islands [edit ]

1847 Kamehaheha III issue [edit ]

background [edit ]

The doomed Keneta was commissioned by King Kamehameha III. Coined money was in big need in the hawaiian Islands and was in continual deficit in the early nineteenth century. In response, King Kamehameha III devoted Chapter 4, Section 1 of the legal code of 1846 to the monetary system of the kingdom, tying it immediately to that of the United States, thus normalizing the rate of transaction of small transfer in the islands and their corresponding values to United States money. Anticipating growing mint money needs, the legal code besides outlined future Hawaiian mint designs.

Of the first coins decided to be acted upon was the Keneta—a copper coin valued at one cent of a U.S. dollar. As the hawaiian Treasury was in deficit of funds during this menstruation, the bull cent was seen as an initial “ low-cost ” topic to be followed by other denominations at a later date. James Jackson Jarves, acting as agent for the hawaiian Government, placed an order for 100,000 of these coins in 1846. He contracted Edward Hulseman—best known for his 1837 Half Cent token—to blueprint and engrave the mint. It is not known precisely where the pieces were minted – although Walter Breen in Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins asserts that they were produced at the secret mint of H. M. & E. I. Richards of Attleboro, Massachusetts ; regardless, Jarves was given a note dated January 14, 1847 in the sum of $ 869.56 by the Minister of Finance as requital for the order. On 3 May 1847 the merchant ship Montreal arrived in Honolulu after sailing from Boston via Rio de Janeiro, Cape Horn and Tahiti. The Keneta were separate of the cargo delivered to the Minister of Finance. When the coins reached the public they proved a grave disappointment. There has been some claim that the denomination was misspelled “ Hapa Haneri ” alternatively of the correct “ Hapa Hanele ” ( which translates to “ separate of a hundred ” or loosely “ one penny ” ). however, “ Hapa Hanele ” is a 20th-century spell. The spelling “ Haneri ” was used throughout the nineteenth century, and besides appears on the $ 100 and $ 500 bills issued during the reign of King Kalakaua. Reports of the clock time state that the King ‘s portrayal was unrecognizable. In addition, the Keneta besides arrived wear or discolored by the humidity and bilge water system of the Montreal, in whose halt they had spent many months. local merchants, who were “ against very small transactions, ” immediately voiced their objections to the coins ; and the only cosmopolitan custom witnessed was by governors of the knocked out islands who used them as transfer when collecting duties and taxes. The final know prison term of return for the Keneta was in 1862, when 11,595 were calm being held in the Treasury vault. Their legal tender condition was removed in 1884, and in the follow year 88,305 were sold as scrap and shipped out of the area. The Keneta is about the same size as the United States Large Cent. The mint bears a female chest of the king on the obverse surrounded by the caption “ KAMEHAMEHA III. KA MOI. ” and the date 1847 below. The revoke has “ HAPA HANERI ” within a leafy wreath, tied with a bow at penetrate, surrounded by “ AUPUNI HAWAII. ” There are two different obverse varieties : one shows a Plain 4 in the date, while the other has a “ Crosslet ” 4 ( with a vertical cake at the proper goal of the horizontal line ). The Plain 4 is normally known as the “ minor Bust ” type, while the Crosslet 4 is called the “ large Bust. ” There are besides six separate varieties of inverse dies with the wreath displaying 13, 15, 17 or 18 berries, with 2CC-6 being the rare followed by 2CC-1. Modern keepsake restrikes have been made, and have no value .

Technical Details [edit ]


  • Mintage: Circulation strikes: 100,000 Proofs: None
  • Designer: Edward Hulseman
  • Diameter: ±27 millimeters
  • Metal content: Copper: 100%
  • Edge: Plain
  • Mintmark: None (H. M. & E. I. Richards of Attleboro, Massachusetts?)
  • Varieties: Plain and Crosslet 4

Medcalf & Russell numbers [edit ]

  • 2CC-1 HAPA HANELI (part of a hundred, one cent) 1847, Crosslet 4 (tunic laps over 4) – “Large Bust” rev. 18 berries (9×9)
  • 2CC-2 HAPA HANELI (part of a hundred, one cent) 1847, Crosslet 4 (tunic laps over 4) – “Large Bust” rev. 15 berries (7×8)
  • 2CC-3 HAPA HANELI (part of a hundred, one cent) 1847, Plain 4 (tunic laps over 7) – “Small Bust” rev. 17 berries (8×9)
  • 2CC-4 HAPA HANELI (part of a hundred, one cent) 1847, Plain 4 (tunic laps over 7) – “Small Bust” rev. 15 berries (8×7)
  • 2CC-5 HAPA HANELI (part of a hundred, one cent) 1847, Plain 4 (tunic laps over 7) – “Small Bust” rev. 13 berries (6×7)
  • 2CC-6 HAPA HANELI (part of a hundred, one cent) 1847, Plain 4 (tunic laps over 7) – “Small Bust” rev. 15 berries (7×8)

1881 Five Cent Pattern Issue [edit ]

backdrop [edit ]

5 Keneta In 1881, on a trip around the worldly concern King Kalākaua I was approached in Vienna, Austria by officials representing the french and belgian mints. These officials suggested that a national neologism be issued for his island kingdom. King Kalākaua I was please with the theme of mugwump neologism for his Kingdom that he ordered patterns for the new coin to be struck. [ 2 ] A spelling error by the engraver substituted the word “ Au ” for “ Ua ” in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi motto Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina one ka Pono. 200 patterns with King Kalākaua I in profile were minted in Paris and forwarded to the king upon his hark back to his island kingdom. [ 1 ] The subjects of the Kingdom of Hawaii did not approve of the fresh coin due to the misspell of the Kingdom ‘s motto. many of these coins were subsequently destroyed or distributed among the friends of the king. [ 2 ]

Medcalf & Russell numbers [edit ]

  • CN-1 KENETA (five cents) 1881 – nickel

1883 Kalākaua I issues [edit ]

10 keneta ( “ one dime bag ” ) coin of 1883. These coins were minted in 1883-84 ( all bearing the earlier date ) at the San Francisco Mint, to American neologism standards and saw wide circulation on the islands. They were designed by Chief Engraver Charles E. Barber. Following american annexation in 1898 large numbers were withdrawn from circulation and melted. [ 3 ] trials

  • CPC-1 HAPAWALU (eighth dollar) 1883 – copper trial
  • CPC-2 HAPAHA (quarter dollar) 1883 – copper trial
  • CPC-3 HAPALUA (half dollar) 1883 – copper trial
  • CPC-4 AKAHI DALA (one dollar) 1883 – copper trial

official version

  • CS-1 UMI KENETA (ten cents) 1883 – silver
  • CS-2 HAPAWALU (eighth dollar) 1883 – silver
  • CS-3 HAPAHA (quarter dollar) 1883 – silver
  • CS-3a HAPAHA (quarter dollar) 1883, 8/3 inside 1883 – silver
  • CS-4 HAPALUA (half dollar) 1883 – silver
  • CS-5 AKAHI DALA (one dollar) 1883 – silver

Mintages of the hawaiian coins, and the numbers melted by the United States government following their demonetization in 1903, are as follows :

  • Umi Keneta: 250,000; Melted: 79.
  • Hapaha: 500,000; Melted: 257,400.
  • Hapalua: 700,000; Melted: 612,245.
  • Akahi Dala: 500,000; Melted: 453,652.

In accession, 26 proof sets were made for presentation to dignitaries .

Tokens [edit ]

John T. Waterhouse [edit ]

backdrop [edit ]

John Thomas Waterhouse Token
The Waterhouse keepsake is struck in white alloy – a kernel similar to pewter or plumbers putty. It is recognized as the earliest sleep together hawaiian token ; although the use of the nominal and the date of emergence is unclear. The firm of J. T. Waterhouse, established in 1851, were importers of dry goods in the nineteenth hundred ; the firm is hush active in respective business enterprises today.

The obverse features a face break of Kamehameha III, though with the surrounding legend reading “ HIS MAJESTY KAMEHAMEHA IV ”. The invert shows a beehive in the center with the issuer ‘s diagnose at top and “ HALE MAIKAI ” – meaning house excellent, or a well seat to do commercial enterprise – below. The token was known as hale meli in hawaiian, recalling the beehive on the revoke .

Medcalf and Russell numbers [edit ]

  • 2TE-1 1855–1860 token – pewter

gallery [edit ]

Wailuku Plantation [edit ]

  • 2TE-2 obv. W.P. 12½ 1871
  • 2TE-3 obv. W.P. 12½ 1871, wider pointed starfish
  • 2TE-4 obv. W.P. VI (6½)
  • 2TE-5 obv. W.P. VI, wider pointed starfish
  • 2TE-6 obv. W.P. 1880, rev. 1RL
  • 2TE-7 obv. W.P. 1880, rev. HALF REAL

Kahului & Wailuku Railroad [edit ]

  • 2TE-8 obv. .T.H.H. 12½, rev. R.R. 1879
  • 2TE-8a obv. .T.H.H. 12½, rev. R.R. 1879, thicker 2mm planchet
  • 2TE-9 obv. T.H.H. 12½ no dot in front of “T”, rev. two stars
  • 2TE-10 obv. T.H.H. 25, rev. R.R. 1879

Kahului Railroad [edit ]

  • TE-9 10 Cents, 1891
  • TE-10 15 Cents, 1891
  • TE-11 20 Cents, 1891
  • TE-12 25 Cents, 1891
  • TE-13 35 Cents, 1891
  • TE-14 75 Cents, 1891

Haiku Plantation [edit ]

  • TE-15 obv. HAIKU 1882, rev. ONE RIAL, reeded edge
  • TE-15a same, except for plain edge

Grove Ranch Plantation [edit ]

  • TE-16 obv. G.R.P. 1886, rev. 12½
  • TE-17 obv. G.R.P. 1887, rev. 12½

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

  • Arndt, John, “Coins of Hawaii Subject Talk by Numismatist,” Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 14 March 1914, p. 22.
  • Breen, Walter (1988). Walter Breen’s Complete Encyclopedia Of U.S. And Colonial Coins. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-14207-2.
  • Bruce, Colin R. II (senior editor) (2006). 2007 Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1901–2000 (34th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0896893650.
  • Kingdom of Hawaii (1846). Statute Laws of His Majesty Kamehameha III, King of the Hawaiian Islands; Passed by the Houses of Nobles and Representatives, During the Twenty-First year of His Reign, and the Third and Fourth years of His Public Recognition, A.D. 1845 and 1846: To which are Appended the Acts of Public Recognition, and the Treaties with Other Nations. Honolulu: Charles E. Hitchcock, Printer, Government Press.
  • Krause, Chester L. and Mishler, Clifford. 1995 Standard Catalog of World Coins. Iola, WI: Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-281-8.
  • Medcalf, Donald & Ronald Russell (1991). Hawaiian Money: Standard Catalog: Second Edition. Honolulu: Nani Stamp & Coin LTD. ISBN 0-9623263-0-5.
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