Pope John Paul II ( latin : Ioannes Paulus II ; italian : Giovanni Paolo II ; polish : Jan Paweł II ; born Karol Józef Wojtyła [ ˈkarɔl ˈjuzɛv vɔjˈtɨwa ] ; [ a ] 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005 ) was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005. He was elected pope by the irregular papal conclave of 1978, which was called after John Paul I, who had been elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third base day of the conclave and adopted the identify of his harbinger in protection to him. [ 18 ] Born in Poland, John Paul II was the beginning non-Italian pope since hadrian VI in the sixteenth hundred and the second-longest-serving pope after Pius IX in advanced history. John Paul II attempted to improve the Catholic Church ‘s relations with Judaism, Islam, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. He maintained the Church ‘s previous positions on such matters as abortion, artificial contraception, the ordination of women, and a celibate clergy, and although he supported the reforms of the second Vatican Council, he was seen as generally conservative in their interpretation. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] He was one of the most travel world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. As region of his limited vehemence on the cosmopolitan call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 [ 21 ] and canonised 483 people, more than the combine tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries. By the clock of his end, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated many of the populace ‘s bishops, and ordained many priests. [ 22 ] He has besides been credited with helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland vitamin a well as the perch of Europe. [ 23 ]
Reading: Pope John Paul II – Wikipedia
John Paul II ‘s causal agent for canonization commenced one calendar month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting menstruation waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed august by his successor, Benedict XVI, and was beatified on 1 May 2011 ( Divine Mercy Sunday ) after the congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intervention, the curative of a french nun called Marie Simon Pierre from Parkinson ‘s disease. A irregular miracle was approved on 2 July 2013, and confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014 ( again Divine Mercy Sunday ), together with John XXIII. [ 24 ] On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the cosmopolitan General Roman Calendar of saints. [ 25 ] It is traditional to celebrate saints ‘ feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II ( 22 October ) is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as “ St. John Paul the Great ”, although the entitle has no official recognition. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ]
Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the polish township of Wadowice. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] He was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła ( 1879–1941 ), an cultural Pole, and Emilia Kaczorowska ( 1884–1929 ), who was of aloof lithuanian heritage. [ 34 ] Emilia, who was a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 [ 35 ] when Wojtyła was eight years erstwhile. His elder sister Olga had died before his parentage, but he was near to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, who was 13 years his senior. Edmund ‘s employment as a doctor finally led to his death from scarlet fever, a passing that affected Wojtyła profoundly. [ 34 ] Wojtyła was baptized a month after his parturition, made his first communion at the age of 9, and was confirmed at the senesce of 18. [ 37 ] As a son, Wojtyła was acrobatic, often playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had touch with the large Jewish residential district of Wadowice. [ 39 ] School football games were frequently organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, and Wojtyła much played on the jewish side. [ 34 ] “ I remember that at least a third gear of my classmates at elementary school in Wadowice were Jews. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on very friendly terms. And what struck me about some of them was their polish patriotism. ” It was around this time that the young Karol had his first gear serious relationship with a female child. He became finale to a female child called Ginka Beer, described as “ a jewish beauty, with colossal eyes and jet black hair’s-breadth, slender, a superb actress. ” In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his founder left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as linguistics and diverse languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and though required to participate in compulsory military train in the Academic Legion, he refused to fire a weapon. He performed with assorted theatrical groups and worked as a dramatist. [ 42 ] During this time, his endowment for language blossomed, and he learned vitamin a many as 15 languages — Polish, Latin, Italian, English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Luxembourgish, Dutch, ukrainian, serbo-croat, Czech, Slovak and Esperanto, [ 43 ] nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, after invading Poland, the national socialist german occupation forces closed the university. [ 32 ] able males were required to work, sol from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual laborer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, in ordering to avoid deportation to Germany. [ 33 ] [ 42 ] In February 1940, he met Jan Tyranowski who introduced him to the Carmelite spiritualty and the “ Living Rosary “ young person groups. [ 44 ] In that same year he had two major accidents, suffering a fracture skull after being struck by a tramcar and sustaining injuries which left him with one shoulder higher than the early and a permanent stoop after being hit by a lorry in a quarry. [ 45 ] His beget, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officeholder and later officer in the polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, [ 46 ] leaving Wojtyła as the immediate syndicate ‘s alone survive member. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] “ I was not at my mother ‘s death, I was not at my brother ‘s end, I was not at my father ‘s death, ” he said, reflecting on these times of his life, about forty years subsequently, “ At twenty dollar bill, I had already lost all the people I loved. ”
After his forefather ‘s death, he started thinking seriously about the priesthood. In October 1942, while the war continued, he knocked on the door of the Archbishop ‘s residence in Kraków and asked to study for the priesthood. soon after, he began courses in the clandestine underground seminary streak by the Archbishop of Kraków, Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha. On 29 February 1944, Wojtyła was hit by a german truck. german Wehrmacht officers tended to him and sent him to a hospital. He spent two weeks there recovering from a severe concussion and a shoulder injury. It seemed to him that this accident and his survival was a ratification of his occupational group. On 6 August 1944, a day known as “ Black Sunday ”, the Gestapo rounded up young men in Kraków to curtail the rebellion there, like to the holocene get up in Warsaw. Wojtyła escaped by hiding in the basement of his uncle ‘s house at 10 Tyniecka Street, while the german troops searched above. More than eight thousand men and boys were taken that day, while Wojtyła escaped to the Archbishop ‘s mansion, where he remained until after the Germans had left. [ 34 ] On the night of 17 January 1945, the Germans fled the city, and the students reclaimed the destroyed seminary. Wojtyła and another seminarian volunteer for the undertaking of clearing away piles of freeze body waste from the toilets. Wojtyła besides helped a 14-year-old jewish refugee girlfriend named Edith Zierer, [ 53 ] who had escaped from a Nazi labor camp in Częstochowa. [ 53 ] Edith had collapsed on a railroad track platform, so Wojtyła carried her to a train and stay with her throughout the travel to Kraków. She late credited Wojtyła with saving her life that day. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ] B’nai B’rith and other authorities have said that Wojtyła helped protect many other polish Jews from the Nazis. During the Nazi occupation of Poland, a jewish class sent their son, Stanley Berger, to be hidden by a Gentile polish family. Berger ‘s biological jewish parents were killed in the Holocaust, and after the war Berger ‘s new christian parents asked Karol Wojtyła to baptise the boy. Wojtyła refused, saying that the child should be raised in the jewish faith of his parturition parents and nation, not as a Catholic. [ 57 ] He did everything he could to ensure that Berger leave Poland to be raised by his jewish relatives in the United States. [ 58 ] In April 2005, shortly after John Paul II ‘s death, the israeli politics created a commission to honour the bequest of John Paul II. One of the honorifics proposed by a head of Italy ‘s Jewish community, Emmanuele Pacifici was the decoration of the Righteous Among the Nations. [ 59 ] In Wojtyła ‘s last ledger, Memory and Identity, he described the 12 years of the Nazi régime as “ bestiality “, quoting from the polish theologian and philosopher Konstanty Michalski. [ 61 ]
After finishing his studies at the seminary in Kraków, Wojtyła was ordained as a priest on All Saints ‘ Day, 1 November 1946, [ 35 ] by the Archbishop of Kraków, Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha. [ 33 ] [ 63 ] Sapieha sent Wojtyła to Rome ‘s Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum, the future Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, to study under the french Dominican friar Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange beginning on 26 November 1946. He resided in the belgian Pontifical College during this clock time, under rectorship of Maximilien de Furstenberg. [ 64 ] Wojtyła earned a license in July 1947, passed his doctoral examination on 14 June 1948, and successfully defended his doctoral thesis titled Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem a Cruce ( The Doctrine of Faith in St. John of the Cross ) in doctrine on 19 June 1948. [ 65 ] The Angelicum preserves the original imitate of Wojtyła ‘s type dissertation. [ 66 ] Among other courses at the Angelicum, Wojtyła studied Hebrew with the dutch Dominican Peter G. Duncker, author of the Compendium grammaticae linguae hebraicae biblicae. [ 67 ]
According to Wojtyła ‘s fellow student the future austrian Cardinal Alfons Stickler, in 1947 during his sojourn at the Angelicum, Wojtyła visited Padre Pio, who heard his confession and told him that one day he would ascend to “ the highest post in the church ”. [ 68 ] Cardinal Stickler added that Wojtyła believed that the prophecy was fulfilled when he became a Cardinal. [ 69 ] Wojtyła returned to Poland in the summer of 1948 for his foremost arcadian assignment in the village of Niegowić, 24 kilometres ( 15 miles ) from Kraków, at the Church of the Assumption. He arrived at Niegowić at harvest time, where his first carry through was to kneel and kiss the ground. He repeated this gesticulate, which he adopted from the french ideal Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney, throughout his papacy. In March 1949, Wojtyła was transferred to the parish of Saint Florian in Kraków. He taught ethics at Jagiellonian University and subsequently at the Catholic University of Lublin. While teaching, he gathered a group of about 20 young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka, the “ little class ”. They met for prayer, philosophic discussion, and to help the blind and the nauseated. The group finally grew to approximately 200 participants, and their activities expanded to include annual skiing and kayaking trips. [ 71 ] In 1953, Wojtyła ‘s habilitation thesis was accepted by the Faculty of Theology at the Jagiellonian University. In 1954, he earned a Doctorate in Sacred Theology, evaluating the feasibility of a Catholic ethic based on the ethical organization of the phenomenologist Max Scheler with a dissertation titled “ Reevaluation of the possibility of founding a Catholic ethic on the ethical system of Max Scheler ” [ 73 ] ( polish : Ocena możliwości zbudowania etyki chrześcijańskiej przy założeniach systemu Maksa Schelera ). [ 74 ] Scheler was a german philosopher who founded a broad philosophical movement that emphasised the report of conscious experience. however, the Communist authorities abolished the Faculty of Theology at the Jagellonian University, thereby preventing him from receiving the degree until 1957. [ 63 ] Wojtyła developed a theological approach, called phenomenological Thomism, that combined traditional Catholic Thomism with the ideas of personalism, a philosophic approach deriving from phenomenology, which was popular among catholic intellectuals in Kraków during Wojtyła ‘s cerebral development. He translated Scheler ‘s Formalism and the Ethics of Substantive Values. [ 75 ] In 1961, he coined “ Thomistic Personalism ” to describe Aquinas ‘s philosophy. [ 76 ]
Karol Wojtyła pictured during a kayaking trip to the countryside with a groups of students, circa 1960 During this period, Wojtyła wrote a series of articles in Kraków ‘s Catholic newspaper, Tygodnik Powszechny ( “ Universal Weekly “ ), dealing with contemporary Church issues. [ 77 ] He focused on creating original literary work during his first twelve years as a priest. War, life under Communism, and his arcadian responsibilities all fed his poetry and plays. Wojtyła published his work under two pseudonyms— Andrzej Jawień and Stanisław Andrzej Gruda [ 42 ] [ 77 ] —to distinguish his literary from his religious writings ( issued under his own name ), and besides so that his literary works would be considered on their own merits. [ 42 ] [ 77 ] In 1960, Wojtyła published the influential theological book Love and Responsibility, a defense of traditional Church teachings on marriage from a fresh philosophic point of view. [ 42 ] While a priest in Kraków, groups of students regularly joined Wojtyła for hike, skiing, bicycling, camping and kayaking, accompanied by entreaty, outdoor Masses and theological discussions. In Stalinist-era Poland, it was not permitted for priests to travel with groups of students. Wojtyła asked his young companions to call him “ Wujek ” ( Polish for “ Uncle ” ) to prevent outsiders from deducing he was a priest. The nickname gained popularity among his followers. In 1958, when Wojtyła was named aide bishop of Kraków, his acquaintances expressed concern that this would cause him to change. Wojtyła responded to his friends, “ Wujek will remain Wujek, ” and he continued to live a childlike life, shunning the trappings that came with his put as Bishop. This beloved nickname stayed with Wojtyła for his integral life sentence and continues to be dearly use, particularly by the polish people. [ 79 ] [ 80 ]
Episcopate and cardinalate
shout to the diocese
19 Kanonicza Street in Kraków Poland where John Paul II lived as a priest and bishop ( now an Archdiocese Museum ). On 4 July 1958, [ 63 ] while Wojtyła was on a kayak vacation in the lake area of northern Poland, Pope Pius XII appointed him as an auxiliary bishop of Kraków. He was consequently summoned to Warsaw to meet the Primate of Poland, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, who informed him of his appointment. [ 81 ] Wojtyła accepted the appointment as aide bishop to Kraków ‘s Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak, and he received episcopal consecration ( as nominal bishop of Ombi ) on 28 September 1958, with Baziak as the principal consecrator and as co-consecrators Bishop Bolesław Kominek ( titular bishop of Sophene and Vågå, accessory of the Catholic Archdiocese of Wrocław, and Franciszek Jop, Auxiliary Bishop of Sandomierz ( Titular Bishop of Daulia. Kominek was to become Cardinal Archbishop of Wrocław ) and Jop was late Auxiliary Bishop of Wrocław and then Bishop of Opole ). [ 63 ] At the senesce of 38, Wojtyła became the youngest bishop in Poland. In 1959, Wojtyła began an annual tradition of saying a Midnight Mass on Christmas Day in an open field at Nowa Huta, the alleged model workers ‘ town outside Kraków that was without a church construct. [ 83 ] Baziak died in June 1962 and on 16 July, Wojtyła was selected as Vicar Capitular (temporary administrator) of the Archdiocese until an archbishop could be appointed. [ 32 ] [ 33 ]
engagement in Vatican II and subsequent events
From October 1962, Wojtyła took contribution in the second Vatican Council ( 1962–1965 ), [ 32 ] [ 63 ] where he made contributions to two of its most historic and influential products, the Decree on Religious Freedom ( in Latin, Dignitatis humanae ) and the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World ( Gaudium et spes ). [ 63 ] Wojtyła and the polish bishops contributed a draft text to the Council for Gaudium et spes. According to the Jesuit historian John W. O’Malley, the enlist text Gaudium et spes that Wojtyła and the polish deputation sent “ had some charm on the version that was sent to the council fathers that summer but was not accepted as the base text ”. [ 84 ] According to John F. Crosby, as pope, John Paul II used the words of Gaudium et spes late to introduce his own views on the nature of the human person in sexual intercourse to God : serviceman is “ the entirely animal on worldly concern that God has wanted for its own sake ”, but man “ can in full discover his true self only in a earnest giving of himself ”. [ 85 ] He besides participated in the assemblies of the Synod of Bishops. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] On 13 January 1964, Pope Paul VI appointed him Archbishop of Kraków. [ 86 ] On 26 June 1967, Paul VI announced Wojtyła ‘s promotion to the College of Cardinals. [ 63 ] [ 86 ] Wojtyła was named cardinal priest of the titulus of San Cesareo in Palatio. In 1967, he was instrumental in formulating the encyclical Humanae vitae, which dealt with the same issues that prevent abortion and artificial birth control. [ 63 ] [ 87 ] [ 88 ] According to a contemporary witness, Wojtyła was against the distribution of a letter around Kraków in 1970, stating that the polish Episcopate was preparing for the fiftieth anniversary of the Polish–Soviet War. In 1973, Wojtyła met philosopher Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, the wife of Hendrik S. Houthakker, professor of economics at Stanford University and Harvard University, and member of President Nixon ‘s Council of Economic Advisers [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] Tymieniecka collaborated with Wojtyła on a count of projects including an english transformation of Wojtyła ‘s ledger Osoba i czyn ( Person and Act ). Person and Act, one of John Paul II ‘s first literary works, was initially written in Polish. [ 90 ] Tymieniecka produced the English-language version. [ 90 ] They corresponded over the years, and grew to be good friends. [ 90 ] [ 92 ] When Wojtyła visited New England in the summer of 1976, Tymieniecka put him up as a node in her class family. [ 90 ] [ 92 ] Wojtyła enjoyed his holiday in Pomfret, Vermont kayak and enjoying the outdoors, as he had done in his beloved Poland. [ 90 ] During 1974–1975, Wojtyła served Pope Paul VI as consultor to the Pontifical Council for the Laity, as recording secretary for the 1974 synod on evangelism and by participating extensively in the original drawing of the 1975 apostolic exhortation, Evangelii nuntiandi. [ 93 ]
first appearance of Pope John Paul II following his election on 16 October 1978 In August 1978, following the death of Pope Paul VI, Wojtyła voted in the papal conclave, which elected John Paul I. John Paul I died after only 33 days as pope, triggering another conclave. [ 33 ] [ 63 ] [ 94 ] The moment conclave of 1978 started on 14 October, ten-spot days after the funeral. It was split between two potent candidates for the papacy : cardinal Giuseppe Siri, the button-down Archbishop of Genoa, and the free Archbishop of Florence, Cardinal Giovanni Benelli, a close friend of John Paul I. [ 95 ]
Supporters of Benelli were confident that he would be elected, and in early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes of achiever. [ 95 ] however, both men faced sufficient confrontation for neither to be likely to prevail. Giovanni Colombo, the Archbishop of Milan, was considered as a compromise campaigner among the italian cardinal-electors, but when he started to receive votes, he announced that, if elected, he would decline to accept the papacy. [ 96 ] Cardinal Franz König, Archbishop of Vienna, suggested Wojtyła as another compromise campaigner to his companion electors. [ 95 ] Wojtyła won on the eighth ballot on the third day ( 16 October ) —coincidentally the day that the american evangelical preacher Billy Graham had merely concluded a 10-day pilgrimage to Poland—with, according to the italian press, 99 votes from the 111 participating electors. Among those cardinals who rallied behind Wojtyła were supporters of Giuseppe Siri, Stefan Wyszyński, most of the american cardinals ( led by John Krol ), and early moderate cardinals. He accepted his election with the words : “ With obedience in religion to Christ, my Lord, and with faith in the Mother of Christ and the Church, in hurt of great difficulties, I accept ”. [ 98 ] The pope, in protection to his immediate predecessor, then took the regnal identify of John Paul II, [ 63 ] [ 95 ] besides in honor of the late pope Paul VI, and the traditional white smoke informed the crowd gathered in St. Peter ‘s Square that a pope had been chosen. There had been rumors that the fresh pope wished to be known as Pope Stanislaus in respect of the polish enshrine of the name, but was convinced by the cardinals that it was not a Roman name. [ 94 ] When the new pope appeared on the balcony, he broke custom by addressing the gathered crowd :
Dear brothers and sisters, we are saddened at the death of our beloved Pope John Paul I, and thus the cardinals have called for a fresh bishop of Rome. They called him from a faraway land—far and so far always near because of our communion in religion and christian traditions. I was afraid to accept that province, yet I do so in a liveliness of obedience to the Lord and total fidelity to Mary, our most Holy Mother. I am speaking to you in your—no, our italian linguistic process. If I make a mistake, please corrict [ sic ] me …. [ 99 ] [ 100 ] [ 101 ] [deliberately mispronouncing the word ‘correct’]
Wojtyła became the 264th pope according to the chronological list of popes, the first base non-Italian in 455 years. [ 102 ] At only 58 years of age, he was the youngest pope since Pope Pius IX in 1846, who was 54. [ 63 ] Like his harbinger, John Paul II dispensed with the traditional papal coronation and alternatively received ecclesiastical investment with a simplified papal inauguration on 22 October 1978. During his inauguration, when the cardinals were to kneel before him to take their vows and kiss his surround, he stood up as the polish archpriest, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński knelt polish, stopped him from kissing the resound, and plainly embraced him. [ 103 ]
John Paul ‘s first papal trip to Poland in June 1979 During his pontificate, John Paul II made journeys to 129 countries, travelling more than 1,100,000 kilometres ( 680,000 myocardial infarction ) while doing so. He systematically attracted big crowd, some among the largest always assembled in human history, such as the Manila World Youth Day, which gathered up to four million people, the largest papal accumulate ever, according to the Vatican. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] John Paul II ‘s earliest official visits were to the Dominican Republic and Mexico in January 1979. [ 107 ] While some of his journey ( such as to the United States and the Holy Land ) were to places previously visited by Pope Paul VI, John Paul II became the first pope to visit the White House in October 1979, where he was greeted warmly by then-President Jimmy Carter. He was the first pope ever to visit several countries in one year, starting in 1979 with Mexico [ 108 ] and Ireland. [ 109 ] He was the beginning reigning pope to travel to the United Kingdom, in 1982, where he met Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. While in Britain he besides visited Canterbury Cathedral and knelt in entreaty with Robert Runcie, the Archbishop of Canterbury, at the spotlight where Thomas à Becket had been killed, [ 110 ] ampere well as holding several large-scale open air masses, including one at Wembley Stadium, which was attended by some 80,000 people. [ 111 ]
John Paul II with the president of Italy Sandro Pertini in 1984 He travelled to Haiti in 1983, where he spoke in Creole to thousands of deprive Catholics gathered to greet him at the airport. His message, “ things must change in Haiti, ” referring to the disparity between the affluent and the poor, was met with deafening applause. [ 112 ] In 2000, he was the beginning modern pope to visit Egypt, [ 113 ] where he met with the Coptic pope, Pope Shenouda III [ 113 ] and the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria. [ 113 ] He was the beginning Catholic pope to visit and pray in an Islamic mosque, in Damascus, Syria, in 2001. He visited the Umayyad Mosque, a erstwhile Christian church where John the Baptist is believed to be interred, [ 114 ] where he made a lecture calling for Muslims, Christians and Jews to live in concert. [ 114 ] On 15 January 1995, during the X World Youth Day, he offered Mass to an estimated crowd of between five and seven million in Luneta Park, [ 106 ] Manila, Philippines, which was considered to be the largest unmarried gather in christian history. [ 106 ] In March 2000, while visiting Jerusalem, John Paul became the beginning pope in history to visit and pray at the Western Wall. [ 115 ] [ 116 ] In September 2001, amid post- 11 September concerns, he travelled to Kazakhstan, with an consultation largely consisting of Muslims, and to Armenia, to participate in the celebration of 1,700 years of armenian Christianity. [ 117 ] In June 1979, John Paul II travelled to Poland, where ecstatic crowd constantly surrounded him. [ 118 ] This first papal trip to Poland uplifted the nation ‘s liveliness and sparked the formation of the Solidarity movement in 1980, which late brought freedom and homo rights to his disturb fatherland. [ 87 ] Poland ‘s communist leaders intended to use the pope ‘s travel to to show the people that although the pope was polish it did not alter their capability to govern, oppress, and distribute the goods of society. They besides hoped that if the pope abided by the rules they set, that the polish people would see his example and follow them angstrom well. If the pope ‘s chew the fat inspired a orgy, the Communist leaders of Poland were prepared to crush the rise and blame the suffer on the pope. [ 119 ]
The pope won that struggle by transcending politics. His was what Joseph Nye calls ‘ soft power ‘ — the power of drawing card and repugnance. He began with an enormous advantage, and exploited it to the utmost : He headed the one mental hospital that stood for the polar antonym of the Communist way of life that the polish people hated. He was a Pole, but beyond the government ‘s pass. By identifying with him, Poles would have the casual to cleanse themselves of the compromises they had to make to live under the regimen. And indeed they came to him by the millions. They listened. He told them to be good, not to compromise themselves, to stick by one another, to be audacious, and that God is the alone source of good, the alone standard of lead. ‘Be not afraid, ‘ he said. Millions shouted in answer, ‘We want God ! We want deity ! We want God ! ‘ The regimen cowered. Had the Pope chosen to turn his soft world power into the unvoiced variety, the government might have been drowned in blood. rather, the Pope plainly led the polish people to desert their rulers by affirming solidarity with one another. The Communists managed to hold on as despots a decade long. But as political leaders, they were finished. Visiting his native Poland in 1979, Pope John Paul II struck what turned out to be a person fellate to its Communist regimen, to the Soviet Empire, [ and ] ultimately to Communism. ” [ 119 ]
When Pope John Paul II kissed the grind at the Warsaw airport he began the process by which Communism in Poland—and ultimately elsewhere in Europe—would come to an end. [ 120 ]
On late trips to Poland, he gave silent hold to the Solidarity administration. [ 87 ] These visits reinforced this message and contributed to the collapse of East european Communism that took place between 1989/1990 with the reintroduction of democracy in Poland, and which then spread through Eastern Europe ( 1990–1991 ) and South-Eastern Europe ( 1990–1992 ). [ 100 ] [ 118 ] [ 121 ] [ 122 ]
World Youth Days
As an extension of his successful work with youth as a young priest, John Paul II pioneered the external World Youth Days. John Paul II presided over nine of them : Rome ( 1985 and 2000 ), Buenos Aires ( 1987 ), Santiago de Compostela ( 1989 ), Częstochowa ( 1991 ), Denver ( 1993 ), Manila ( 1995 ), Paris ( 1997 ), and Toronto ( 2002 ). total attendance at these key signature events of the papacy was in the tens of millions. [ 123 ]
keenly aware of the rhythm of time and the importance of anniversaries in the Church ‘s life, John Paul II led nine “ give years ” during the twenty-six and a one-half years of his papacy : the Holy Year of the Redemption in 1983–84, the marian year in 1987–88, the year of the Family in 1993–94, the three trinitarian years of formulation for the Great Jubilee of 2000, the Great Jubilee itself, the year of the Rosary in 2002–3, and the year of the Eucharist, which began on 17 October 2004, and concluded six months after the Pope ‘s death. [ 123 ]
Great Jubilee of 2000
The Great Jubilee of 2000 was a call to the Church to become more aware and to embrace her missionary tax for the work of evangelization .
From the begin of my Pontificate, my thoughts had been on this Holy year 2000 as an important appointment. I thought of its celebration as a heaven-sent opportunity during which the Church, thirty-five years after the second Vatican Ecumenical Council, would examine how far she had renewed herself, in order to be able to take up her evangelising mission with fresh enthusiasm. [ 124 ]
John Paul II besides made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land for the Great Jubilee of 2000. [ 125 ] During his visit to the Holy Land, John Paul II visited many sites of the Rosary, including the following locations : Bethany Beyond the Jordan ( Al-Maghtas ), at the Jordan river, where John the Baptist baptized Jesus ; Manger Square and the Church of the Nativity in the town of Bethlehem, the location of Jesus ‘ parentage ; and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, the locate of Jesus ‘ burying and resurrection. [ 126 ] [ 127 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ]
As pope, John Paul II wrote 14 papal encyclicals and teach about sex in what is referred as the “ Theology of the Body “. Some key elements of his strategy to “ reposition the Catholic Church ” were encyclicals such as Ecclesia de Eucharistia, Reconciliatio et paenitentia and Redemptoris Mater. In his At the beginning of the new millennium ( Novo Millennio Ineunte ), he emphasised the importance of “ starting afresh from Christ ” : “ No, we shall not be saved by a formula but by a Person. ” In The Splendour of the Truth ( Veritatis Splendor ), he emphasised the addiction of man on God and His Law ( “ Without the Creator, the creature disappears ” ) and the “ addiction of freedom on the truth ”. He warned that man “ giving himself over to relativism and agnosticism, goes off in search of an illusive freedom apart from truth itself ”. In Fides et Ratio ( On the Relationship between Faith and Reason ) John Paul promoted a renewed interest in philosophy and an autonomous pursuit of truth in theological matters. Drawing on many different sources ( such as Thomism ), he described the mutually supporting relationship between religion and reason, and emphasised that theologians should focus on that kinship. John Paul II wrote extensively about workers and the social doctrine of the Church, which he discussed in three encyclicals : Laborem exercens, Sollicitudo rei socialis, and Centesimus annus. Through his encyclicals and many Apostolic Letters and Exhortations, John Paul II talked about the dignity and the equality of women. [ 130 ] He argued for the importance of the family for the future of world. [ 87 ] other encyclicals include The Gospel of Life ( Evangelium Vitae ) and Ut Unum Sint ( That They May Be One ). Though critics accused him of inflexibility in explicitly re-asserting Catholic moral teachings against miscarriage and euthanasia that have been in stead for well over a thousand years, he urged a more nuanced horizon of capital punishment. [ 87 ] In his moment encyclical Dives in misericordia he stressed that divine mercy is the greatest feature of God, needed particularly in modern times .
Social and political stances
John Paul II during a visit to West Germany, 1980 John Paul II was considered a conservative on doctrine and issues relating to human sexual reproduction and the ordering of women. [ 131 ] While he was visiting the United States in 1977, the class before becoming pope, Wojtyła said : “ All human animation, from the moments of creation and through all subsequent stages, is sacred. ” [ 132 ] A series of 129 lectures given by John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in Rome between September 1979 and November 1984 were late compiled and published as a one work titled Theology of the Body, an gallop meditation on human sex. He extended it to the condemnation of abortion, euthanasia and about all capital punishment, [ 133 ] calling them all a separate of a conflict between a “ polish of life “ and a “ culture of death ”. [ 134 ] He campaigned for global debt forgiveness and social department of justice. [ 87 ] [ 131 ] He coined the term “ social mortgage “, which related that all secret place had a social dimension, namely, that “ the goods of this are originally meant for all. ” [ 135 ] In 2000, he publicly endorsed the Jubilee 2000 political campaign on african debt relief fronted by Irish rock ‘n’ roll stars Bob Geldof and Bono, once famously interrupting a U2 commemorate seance by telephoning the studio and asking to speak to Bono. [ 136 ] John Paul II, who was present and very influential at the 1962–65 second Vatican Council, affirmed the teachings of that Council and did much to implement them. however, his critics often wished that he would embrace the alleged “ progressive ” agenda that some hoped would evolve as a result of the Council. In fact, the Council did not advocate “ progressive ” changes in these areas ; for case, they calm condemned miscarriage as an indefinable crime. John Paul II continued to declare that contraception, miscarriage, and homosexual acts were badly extraordinary, and, with Joseph Ratzinger ( future Pope Benedict XVI ), opposed dismissal theology. Following the Church ‘s exaltation of the marital act of intimate intercourse between a baptize man and woman within sacramental marriage as proper and exclusive to the sacrament of marriage, John Paul II believed that it was, in every case, profaned by contraception, abortion, divorce followed by a ‘second ‘ marriage, and by homosexual acts. In 1994, John Paul II asserted the Church ‘s lack of authority to ordain women to the priesthood, stating that without such assurance ordering is not legitimately compatible with fidelity to Christ. This was besides deemed a repudiation of calls to break with the constant custom of the Church by ordaining women to the priesthood. [ 137 ] In addition, John Paul II chose not to end the discipline of mandatary priestly celibacy, although in a little numeral of unusual circumstances, he did allow certain married clergymen of other christian traditions who late became Catholic to be ordained as catholic priests .
Apartheid in South Africa
John Paul II was an blunt adversary of apartheid in South Africa. In 1985, while visiting the Netherlands, he gave an ardent lecture condemning apartheid at the International Court of Justice, proclaiming that “ No system of apartheid or branch development will ever be acceptable as a model for the relations between peoples or races. ” [ 138 ] In September 1988, John Paul II made a pilgrimage to ten southern african countries, including those bordering South Africa, while demonstratively avoiding South Africa. During his visit to Zimbabwe, John Paul II called for economic sanctions against South Africa ‘s government. [ 139 ] After John Paul II ‘s end, both Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu praised the pope for defending human rights and condemning economic injustice. [ 140 ]
John Paul II was an outspoken opposition of the death punishment, although former popes had accepted the commit. At a papal mass in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States he said :
A sign of hope is the increasing recognition that the dignity of human life must never be taken away, tied in the case of person who has done capital malefic. Modern company has the means of protecting itself, without definitively denying criminals the casual to reform. I renew the appeal I made most recently at Christmas for a consensus to end the death punishment, which is both barbarous and unnecessary. [ 141 ]
During that visit, John Paul II convinced the then governor of Missouri, Mel Carnahan, to reduce the death sentence of convicted murderer Darrell J. Mease to life imprisonment without parole. [ 142 ] John Paul II ‘s other attempts to reduce the sentence of death-row inmates were abortive. In 1983, John Paul II visited Guatemala and unsuccessfully asked the area ‘s president, Efraín Ríos Montt, to reduce the prison term for six leftist guerrillas sentenced to end. [ 143 ] In 2002, John Paul II again travelled to Guatemala. At that fourth dimension, Guatemala was one of lone two countries in Latin America ( the other being Cuba ) to apply capital punishment. John Paul II asked the Guatemalan president, Alfonso Portillo, for a moratorium on executions. [ 144 ]
John Paul II pushed for a reference to Europe ‘s Christian cultural roots in the draft of the european Constitution. In his 2003 apostolic exhortation Ecclesia in Europa, John Paul II wrote that he “ fully ( respected ) the laic nature of ( european ) institutions ”. however, he wanted the EU Constitution to enshrine religious rights, including acknowledging the rights of religious groups to organise freely, recognise the specific identity of each denomination and allow for a “ integrated dialogue ” between each religious community and the EU, and extend across the European Union the legal condition enjoyed by religious institutions in person member states. “ I wish once more to appeal to those drawing up the future european Constitutional Treaty so that it will include a citation to the religion and in particular to the Christian inheritance of Europe, ” John Paul II said. The pope ‘s desire for a reference to Europe ‘s Christian identity in the Constitution was supported by non-catholic representatives of the Church of England and Eastern Orthodox Churches from Russia, Romania, and Greece. [ 145 ] John Paul II ‘s demand to include a address to Europe ‘s Christian roots in the european Constitution was supported by some non-Christians, such as Joseph Weiler, a practice Orthodox Jew and renowned constituent lawyer, who said that the Constitution ‘s lack of a citation to Christianity was not a “ demonstration of neutrality, ” but, preferably, “ a Jacobin attitude ”. [ 146 ] At the same time, however, John Paul II was an enthusiastic patron of european integration ; in particular, he supported his native Poland ‘s entrance into the bloc. On 19 May 2003, three weeks before a referendum was held in Poland on EU membership, the polish pope addressed his compatriots and urged them to vote for Poland ‘s EU membership at St. Peter ‘s Square in Vatican City State. While some button-down, catholic politicians in Poland opposed EU membership, John Paul II said :
I know that there are many in opposition to consolidation. I appreciate their refer about maintaining the cultural and religious identity of our nation. however, I must emphasise that Poland has constantly been an authoritative separate of Europe. Europe needs Poland. The church in Europe needs the Poles ‘ testimony of faith. Poland needs Europe. [ 147 ]
The polish pope compared Poland ‘s entry into the EU to the Union of Lublin, which was signed in 1569 and united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into one nation and created an elective monarchy. [ 148 ]
On 22 October 1996, in a actor’s line to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences plenary school term at the Vatican, John Paul II said of development that “ this theory has been increasingly accepted by researchers, following a series of discoveries in diverse fields of cognition. The convergence, neither sought nor fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a meaning argument in privilege of this theory. ” John Paul II ‘s embrace of evolution was sky-high praised by american paleontologist and evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould, [ 149 ] with whom he had an audience in 1984. [ 150 ] Although broadly accepting the theory of development, John Paul II made one major exception—the homo soul. “ If the human body has its origin in living material which pre-exists it, the spiritual soul is immediately created by God. ” [ 151 ] [ 152 ] [ 153 ]
In 2003 John Paul II criticised the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq, saying in his state of the World address “ No to war ! War is not always inevitable. It is constantly a frustration for humanity. ” [ 154 ] He sent Pio Cardinal Laghi, the early Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to the United States, to talk with George W. Bush, the US president of the united states, to express opposition to the war. John Paul II said that it was up to the United Nations to solve the external conflict through statesmanship and that a unilateral aggression is a crime against peace and a violation of external law. The pope ‘s confrontation to the Iraq War led to him being a candidate to win the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, which was ultimately awarded to Iranian attorney/judge and noted homo rights advocate, Shirin Ebadi. [ 155 ] [ 156 ]
In 1984 and 1986, through Cardinal Ratzinger ( future Pope Benedict XVI ) as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, John Paul II formally condemned aspects of liberation theology, which had many followers in Latin America. [ 157 ] Visiting Europe, Salvadoran Archbishop Óscar Romero unsuccessfully attempted to obtain a vatican disapprobation of the rightist El Salvadoran regimen for violations of human rights during the Salvadoran Civil War and its support of death squads, and expressed his frustration in working with clergy who cooperated with the politics. He was encouraged by John Paul II to maintain episcopal oneness as a top precedence. [ 158 ] [ 159 ] In his travel to Managua, Nicaragua, in 1983, John Paul II gratingly condemned what he dubbed the “ democratic church ” [ 157 ] ( i “ ecclesial base communities “ supported by the CELAM ), and the Nicaraguan clergy ‘s tendencies to support the leftist Sandinistas, reminding the clergy of their duties of obedience to the Holy See. [ 160 ] [ 161 ] [ 157 ] During that inflict Ernesto Cardenal, a priest and minister in the Sandinista government, knelt to kiss his hand. John Paul withdrew it, wagged his finger in Cardinal ‘s confront, and told him, “ You must straighten out your placement with the church. ” [ 162 ]
John Paul II was the first pope to denounce Mafia violence in Southern Italy. In 1993, during a pilgrimage to Agrigento, sicily, he appealed to the Mafiosi : “ I say to those responsible : ‘Convert ! One day, the judgment of God will arrive ! ‘ ” In 1994, John Paul II visited Catania and told victims of Mafia ferocity to “ rise up and cloak yourself in light and department of justice ! ” [ 163 ] In 1995, the Mafia bombed two historical churches in Rome. Some believed that this was the throng ‘s vendetta against the pope for his denunciations of unionize crime. [ 164 ]
irani Gulf War
between 1990 and 1991, a 34-nation coalition led by the United States waged a war against Saddam Hussein ‘s Iraq, which had invaded and annex Kuwait. John Paul II was a stem opponent of the Gulf War. Throughout the battle, he appealed to the international community to stop the war, and after it was over led diplomatic initiatives to negotiate peace in the Middle East. [ 165 ] In his 1991 encyclical Centesimus Annus, John Paul II harshly condemned the dispute :
No, never again war, which destroys the lives of innocent people, teaches how to kill, throws into agitation even the lives of those who do the killing and leaves behind a lead of resentment and hatred, frankincense making it all the more difficult to find a good solution of the very problems which provoked the war. [ 166 ]
In April 1991, during his Urbi et Orbi Sunday message at St. Peter ‘s Basilica, John Paul II called for the international community to “ lend an ear ” to “ the long-ignored aspirations of laden peoples ”. He specifically named the Kurds, a people who were fighting a civil war against Saddam Hussein ‘s troops in Iraq, as one such people, and referred to the war as a “ darkness menacing the land ”. During this time, the Vatican had expressed its frustration with the international ignore of the pope ‘s calls for peace in the Middle East. [ 167 ]
John Paul II was the first world drawing card to describe the slaughter of tutsi by Hutus in the largely catholic country of Rwanda as a genocide, which occurred in 1994. During the Rwandan Civil War, he called for a ceasefire and condemned the persecution for the Tutsis on 10 April and 15 May 1990. [ 168 ] In 1995, during his one-third visit to Kenya before an audience of 300,000, John Paul II pleaded for an end to the ferocity in Rwanda and Burundi, pleading for forgiveness and reconciliation as a solution to the genocide. He told Rwandan and Burundian refugees that he “ was close to them and shared their huge pain ”. He said :
What is happening in your countries is a atrocious calamity that must end. During the African Synod, we, the pastors of the church, felt the duty to express our alarm and to launch an invoke for forgiveness and reconciliation. This is the only way to dissipate the threats of ethnocentrism that are hovering over Africa these days and that have so viciously allude Rwanda and Burundi. [ 169 ]
Views on sex
While taking a traditional position on homo sex, maintaining the Church ‘s moral opposition to homosexual acts, John Paul II asserted that people with homosexual inclinations possess the same implicit in dignity and rights as everybody else. [ 170 ] In his book Memory and Identity, he referred to the “ strong pressures ” by the European Parliament to recognise homosexual unions as an alternative type of kin, with the right to adopt children. In the record, as quoted by Reuters, he wrote : “ It is lawful and necessary to ask oneself if this is not possibly part of a new political orientation of evil, more subtle and hidden, possibly, intent upon exploiting human rights themselves against man and against the class. ” [ 87 ] A 1997 study determined that 3 % of the pope ‘s statements were about the write out of sexual ethical motive. [ 172 ] In 1986, the Pope approved the release of a document from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith regarding Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons. While not neglecting to comment on homosexuality and moral order, the letter issued multiple affirmations of the dignity of homosexual persons. [ 173 ]
reform of canon police
John Paul II completed a all-out reform of the Catholic Church ‘s legal system, Latin and Eastern, and a reform of the Roman Curia. On 18 October 1990, when promulgating the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, John Paul II stated
By the issue of this Code, the canonic order of the whole church is frankincense at length completed, following as it does … the “ Apostolic Constitution on the Roman Curia “ of 1988, which is added to both Codes as the primary coil instrumental role of the Roman Pontiff for ‘the communion that binds together, as it were, the solid Church ‘ [ 174 ]
In 1998 John Paul II issued the motu proprio Ad tuendam fidem, which amended two canons ( 750 and 1371 ) of the 1983 Code of Canon Law and two canons ( 598 and 1436 ) of the 1990 Code of Canons of the eastern Churches .
1983 Code of Canon Law
On 25 January 1983, with the Apostolic Constitution Sacrae disciplinae leges John Paul II promulgated the current Code of Canon Law for all members of the Catholic Church who belonged to the Latin Church. It entered into pull the first Sunday of the take after Advent, [ 175 ] which was 27 November 1983. [ 176 ] John Paul II described the new Code as “ the last text file of Vatican II ”. [ 175 ] Edward N. Peters has referred to the 1983 Code as the “ Johanno-Pauline Code ” [ 177 ] ( Johannes Paulus is Latin for “ John Paul ” ), paralleling the “ Pio-Benedictine ” 1917 code that it replaced .
Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches
John Paul II promulgated the Code of Canons of the easterly Churches ( CCEO ) on 18 October 1990, by the document Sacri Canones. [ 178 ] The CCEO came into force of law on 1 October 1991. [ 179 ] It is the codification of the coarse portions of the Canon Law for the 23 of the 24 sui iuris churches in the Catholic Church that are the Eastern Catholic Churches. It is divided into 30 titles and has a full of 1540 canons. [ 180 ]
John Paul II promulgated the papal united states constitution Pastor bonus on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the Roman Curia. Pastor bonus laid out in considerable detail the organization of the Roman Curia, specifying precisely the names and composition of each dicastery, and enumerating the competencies of each dicastery. It replaced the previous special law, Regimini Ecclesiæ universæ, which was promulgated by Paul VI in 1967. [ 181 ]
Catechism of the Catholic Church
On 11 October 1992, in his apostolic fundamental law Fidei depositum ( The Deposit of Faith ), John Paul ordered the publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. He declared the publication to be “ a sure norm for teaching the religion … a sure and authentic character textbook for teaching Catholic doctrine and peculiarly for preparing local anesthetic catechisms ”. It was “ mean to encourage and assist in the write of new local catechism [ both applicable and close ] ” preferably than replacing them .
Role in the flop of dictatorships
John Paul II has been credited with inspire political switch that not alone led to the break down of Communism in his native Poland and finally all of Eastern Europe, but besides in many countries ruled by dictators. In the words of Joaquín Navarro-Valls, John Paul II ‘s press secretary :
The single fact of John Paul II ‘s election in 1978 changed everything. In Poland, everything began. not in East Germany or Czechoslovakia. then the whole matter spread. Why in 1980 did they lead the way in Gdansk ? Why did they decide, now or never ? only because there was a polish pope. He was in Chile and Pinochet was out. He was in Haiti and Duvalier was out. He was in the Philippines and Marcos was out. On many of those occasions, people would come hera to the Vatican thanking the Holy Father for changing things. [ 182 ]
Before John Paul II ‘s pilgrimage to Latin America, during a touch with reporters, he criticised Augusto Pinochet ‘s regimen as “ authoritarian ”. In the words of The New York Times, he used “ unusually firm terminology ” to criticise Pinochet and asserted to journalists that the Church in Chile must not merely beg, but actively fight for the renovation of democracy in Chile. [ 183 ] During his sojourn to Chile in 1987, John Paul II asked Chile ‘s 31 catholic bishops to campaign for free elections in the country. [ 184 ] According to George Weigel and Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, he encouraged Pinochet to accept a democratic open of the regimen, and may even have called for his resignation. [ 185 ] According to Monsignor Sławomir Oder, the postulator of John Paul II ‘s beatification cause, John Paul ‘s words to Pinochet had a fundamental shock on the Chilean dictator. The pope confided to a friend : “ I received a letter from Pinochet in which he told me that as a Catholic he had listened to my words, he had accepted them, and he had decided to begin the process to change the leadership of his state. ” [ 186 ] During his visit to Chile, John Paul II supported the Vicariate of Solidarity, the Church-led pro-democracy, anti-Pinochet constitution. John Paul II visited the Vicariate of Solidarity ‘s offices, spoke with its workers, and “ called upon them to continue their oeuvre, emphasizing that the Gospel systematically urges respect for homo rights ”. [ 187 ] While in Chile, John Paul II made gestures of public support of Chile ‘s anti-Pinochet democratic opposition. For case, he hugged and kissed Carmen Gloria Quintana, a young scholar who had been closely burned to death by Chilean police and told her that “ We must pray for peace and justice in Chile. ” [ 188 ] former, he met with several resistance groups, including those that had been declared illegal by Pinochet ‘s government. The opposition praised John Paul II for denouncing Pinochet as a “ authoritarian ”, for many members of Chile ‘s opposition were persecuted for much balmy statements. Bishop Carlos Camus, one of the harshest critics of Pinochet ‘s dictatorship within the Chilean Church, praised John Paul II ‘s position during the papal visit : “ I am quite moved, because our pastor supports us wholly. Never again will anyone be able to say that we are interfering in politics when we defend human dignity. ” He added : “ No country the Pope has visited has remained the lapp after his departure. The Pope ‘s visit is a mission, an extraordinary sociable catechism, and his persist here will be a watershed in Chilean history. ” [ 189 ] Some have mistakenly accused John Paul II of affirming Pinochet ‘s government by appearing with the Chilean rule in populace. however, Cardinal Roberto Tucci, the organizer of John Paul II ‘s visits, revealed that Pinochet tricked the pope by telling him he would take him to his know room, while in reality he took him to his balcony. Tucci says that the pope was “ angered ”. [ 190 ]
John Paul II visited Haiti on 9 March 1983, when the country was ruled by Jean-Claude “ Baby Doc ” Duvalier. He bluffly criticised the poverty of the area, directly addressing Baby Doc and his wife, Michèle Bennett in front of a big herd of Haitians :
Yours is a beautiful nation, rich in homo resources, but Christians can not be unaware of the injustice, the excessive inequality, the degradation of the quality of life, the misery, the hunger, the fear suffered by the majority of the people. [ 191 ]
John Paul II spoke in french and occasionally in Creole, and in the homily outlined the basic human rights that most Haitians lacked : “ the opportunity to eat enough, to be cared for when ill, to find caparison, to study, to overcome illiteracy, to find worthwhile and properly paid employment ; all that provides a in truth human life for men and women, for young and old. ” Following John Paul II ‘s pilgrimage, the haitian opposition to Duvalier frequently reproduced and quoted the pope ‘s message. curtly before leaving Haiti, John Paul II called for social switch in Haiti by saying : “ Lift up your heads, be conscious of your dignity of men created in God ‘s persona …. ” [ 192 ] John Paul II ‘s visit inspired massive protests against the Duvalier dictatorship. In reaction to the visit, 860 catholic priests and Church workers signed a statement committing the church to work on behalf of the poor. [ 193 ] In 1986, Duvalier was deposed in an arise .
The collapse of the dictatorship of General Alfredo Stroessner of Paraguay was linked, among other things, to John Paul II ‘s visit to the south american english country in May 1988. [ 194 ] Since Stroessner ‘s taking power through a coup d’etat d’état in 1954, Paraguay ‘s bishops increasingly criticised the government for homo rights abuses, rigged elections, and the country ‘s feudal economy. During his secret meet with Stroessner, John Paul II told the dictator :
Politics has a fundamental ethical dimension because it is first and foremost a service to man. The church can and must remind men—and in especial those who govern—of their ethical duties for the commodity of the whole of society. The church service can not be isolated inside its temples just as men ‘s consciences can not be isolated from God. [ 195 ]
by and by, during a Mass, John Paul II criticised the regimen for impoverishing the peasants and the unemployed, saying that the government must give people greater access to the land. Although Stroessner tried to prevent him from doing thus, John Paul II met enemy leaders in the one-party country. [ 195 ]
Role in the fall of communism
Role as religious divine guidance and catalyst
By the deep 1970s, the dissolution of the Soviet Union had been predicted by some observers. [ 196 ] [ 197 ] John Paul II has been credited with being implemental in bringing down Communism in Central and Eastern Europe, [ 87 ] [ 100 ] [ 121 ] [ 122 ] by being the spiritual inspiration behind its fall and catalyst for “ a peaceful rotation ” in Poland. Lech Wałęsa, the collapse of Solidarity and the inaugural post-communist President of Poland, credited John Paul II with giving Poles the courage to demand change. [ 87 ] According to Wałęsa, “ Before his pontificate, the world was divided into bloc. cipher knew how to get rid of Communism. In Warsaw, in 1979, he just said : ‘Do not be afraid ‘, and later prayed : ‘Let your Spirit descend and change the image of the land … this land ‘. ” It has besides been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank covertly funded Solidarity. [ 199 ] [ 200 ] In 1984, the foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration saw opened diplomatic relations with the Vatican for the first time since 1870. In crisp contrast to the long history of firm domestic confrontation, this meter there was identical little opposition from Congress, the courts, and Protestant groups. [ 201 ] Relations between Reagan and John Paul II were close, specially because of their shared anti-communism and keen interest in forcing the Soviets out of Poland. [ 202 ] Reagan ‘s symmetry with the pope reveals “ a continuous hurrying to shore up vatican documentation for U.S. policies. possibly most amazingly, the papers show that, vitamin a late as 1984, the pope did not believe the Communist polish government could be changed. ” [ 203 ]
No matchless can prove conclusively that he was a elementary lawsuit of the goal of communism. however, the major figures on all sides—not good Lech Wałęsa, the polish Solidarity drawing card, but besides Solidarity ‘s arch-opponent, General Wojciech Jaruzelski ; not just the former American president of the united states George Bush Senior but besides the former Soviet president of the united states Mikhail Gorbachev—now agree that he was. I would argue the historic case in three steps : without the polish Pope, no Solidarity revolution in Poland in 1980 ; without Solidarity, no dramatic change in soviet policy towards eastern Europe under Gorbachev ; without that change, no velvet revolutions in 1989. [ 204 ]
In December 1989, John Paul II met with the soviet drawing card Mikhail Gorbachev at the Vatican and each expressed his respect and admiration for the other. Gorbachev once said : “ The crack up of the Iron Curtain would have been impossible without John Paul II. ” [ 100 ] [ 121 ] On John Paul II ‘s end, Mikhail Gorbachev said : “ Pope John Paul II ‘s devotion to his followers is a remarkable model to all of us. ” [ 122 ] On 4 June 2004, US President George W. Bush presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States ‘ highest civilian honor, to John Paul II during a ceremony at the Apostolic Palace. The president of the united states read the citation that accompanied the decoration, which recognised “ this son of Poland ” whose “ principled stand for peace and freedom has inspired millions and helped to topple communism and absolutism ”. [ 205 ] After receiving the award, John Paul II said, “ May the hope for exemption, peace, a more humane universe symbolised by this decoration revolutionize men and women of good will in every clock and rate. ” [ 206 ]
communist attempt to compromise John Paul II
Croatia Graffiti showing John Paul II with quote “ Do not be afraid ” in Rijeka In 1983, Poland ‘s communist government unsuccessfully tried to humiliate John Paul II by falsely saying he had fathered an illegitimate child. Section D of Służba Bezpieczeństwa ( SB ), the security avail, had an action named “ Triangolo ” to carry out criminal operations against the Catholic Church ; the operation encompassed all polish hostile actions against the pope. [ 207 ] [ better source needed ] Captain Grzegorz Piotrowski, one of the murderers of beatified Jerzy Popiełuszko, was the leader of section D. They drugged Irena Kinaszewska, the repository of the Kraków-based hebdomadally Catholic magazine Tygodnik Powszechny where Karol Wojtyła had worked, and unsuccessfully attempted to make her admit to having had sexual relations with him. [ 208 ] The SB then attempted to compromise Kraków priest Andrzej Bardecki, an editor program of Tygodnik Powszechny and one of the closest friends of Cardinal Karol Wojtyła before he became pope, by planting faithlessly memoirs in his dwell, but Piotrowski was exposed and the forgeries were found and destroyed before the SB could “ discover ” them. [ 208 ]
Relations with other christian denominations
John Paul II travelled extensively and met with believers from many divergent faiths. At the World Day of Prayer for Peace, held in Assisi on 27 October 1986, more than 120 representatives of different religions and denominations spent a day of fast and prayer. [ 209 ]
Churches of the East
Although the contact between the Holy See and many Christians of the East had never wholly end, communion had been interrupted since ancient times. Again, the history of conflict in Central Europe was a complex part of John Paul II ‘s personal cultural inheritance which made him all the more determined to react thus as to attempt to overcome abiding difficulties, given that relatively speaking the Holy See and the non-catholic Eastern Churches are stopping point in many points of faith .
Eastern Orthodox Church
In May 1999, John Paul II visited Romania on the invitation from Patriarch Teoctist Arăpaşu of the romanian Orthodox Church. This was the first prison term a pope had visited a predominantly Eastern Orthodox nation since the Great Schism in 1054. [ 210 ] On his arrival, the Patriarch and the President of Romania, Emil Constantinescu, greeted the pope. [ 210 ] The Patriarch stated ,
“ The moment millennium of christian history began with a afflictive wound of the integrity of the Church ; the end of this millennium has seen a real commitment to restoring christian oneness. ” [ 210 ]
On 23–27 June 2001, John Paul II visited Ukraine, another heavily Orthodox nation, at the invitation of the President of Ukraine and bishops of the ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. [ 211 ] The Pope spoke to leaders of the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches and Religious Organisations, pleading for “ open, tolerant and honest dialogue ”. [ 211 ] About 200 thousand people attended the liturgies celebrated by the Pope in Kyiv, and the holy eucharist in Lviv gathered about one and a half million faithful. [ 211 ] John Paul II said that an conclusion to the Great Schism was one of his fondest wishes. [ 211 ] Healing divisions between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches regarding Latin and Byzantine traditions was clearly of great personal matter to. For many years, John Paul II sought to facilitate dialogue and oneness express angstrom early as 1988 in Euntes in mundum, “ Europe has two lungs, it will never breathe well until it uses both of them. ” During his 2001 travels, John Paul II became the first pope to visit Greece in 1291 years. [ 212 ] [ 213 ] In Athens, the pope met with Archbishop Christodoulos, the promontory of the Church of Greece. [ 212 ] After a individual 30-minute meet, the two spoke publicly. Christodoulos read a list of “ 13 offences ” of the Catholic Church against the easterly Orthodox Church since the Great Schism, [ 212 ] including the plundering of Constantinople by crusaders in 1204, and bemoaned the miss of apology from the Catholic Church, saying “ Until nowadays, there has not been heard a one request for pardon ” for the “ maniacal crusaders of the thirteenth century ”. [ 212 ] The pope responded by saying “ For the occasions past and introduce, when sons and daughters of the Catholic Church have sinned by action or omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters, may the Lord concession us forgiveness ”, to which Christodoulos immediately applauded. John Paul II said that the sacking of Constantinople was a reservoir of “ heavy sorrow ” for Catholics. [ 212 ] Later John Paul II and Christodoulos met on a touch where canonize Paul had once preached to athenian Christians. They issued a ‘common declaration ‘, saying
“ We shall do everything in our exponent, so that the Christian roots of Europe and its christian person may be preserved …. We condemn all recourse to violence, proselytism and fanaticism, in the name of religion. ” [ 212 ]
The two leaders then said the Lord ‘s Prayer in concert, breaking an orthodox taboo against praying with Catholics. [ 212 ] The pope had said throughout his papacy that one of his greatest dream was to visit Russia, [ 214 ] but this never occurred. He attempted to solve the problems that had arisen over centuries between the Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches, and in 2004 gave them a 1730 copy of the baffled picture of Our lady of Kazan .
armenian Apostolic Church
John Paul II was determined to maintain good relations with the armenian Apostolic Church, whose separation from the Holy See dated to Christian antiquity. In 1996, he brought the Catholic Church and the armenian Apostolic Church close by agreeing with armenian Archbishop Karekin II on Christ ‘s nature. [ 215 ] During an audience in 2000, John Paul II and Karekin II, by then the Catholicos of All Armenians, issued a joint argument condemning the armenian genocide. meanwhile, the pope gave Karekin the relics of St. Gregory the Illuminator, the first head of the armenian church service that had been kept in Naples, Italy, for 500 years. [ 216 ] In September 2001, John Paul II went on a three-day pilgrimage to Armenia to take separate in an ecumenic celebration with Karekin II in the newly consecrated St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral in Yerevan. The two church leaders signed a announcement remembering the victims of the armenian genocide. [ 217 ]
Like his successors after him, John Paul II took a large phone number of initiatives to promote friendly relations, practical humanitarian cooperation and theological dialogue with a range of Protestant bodies. Of these the first base in importance had to be with Lutheranism, given that the controversy with Martin Luther and his followers was the most significant historical split in westerly Christianity .
Read more: Quanta Magazine
Read more: Quanta Magazine
From 15 to 19 November 1980, John Paul II visited West Germany [ 218 ] on his beginning trip to a nation with a large Lutheran Protestant population. In Mainz, he met with leaders of the Evangelical Church in Germany, and with representatives of other christian denominations. On 11 December 1983, John Paul II participated in an ecumenic service in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Rome, [ 219 ] the inaugural papal visit ever to a Lutheran church. The visit took space 500 years after the parturition of the german Martin Luther, who was first an augustinian friar and subsequently a leading protestant Reformer. In his apostolic pilgrimage to Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark and Sweden of June 1989, [ 220 ] John Paul II became the first pope to visit countries with Lutheran majorities. In addition to celebrating Mass with Catholic believers, he participated in ecumenic services at places that had been Catholic shrines before the reformation : trondheim Cathedral in Norway ; approximate St. Olav ‘s church service at Thingvellir in Iceland ; Turku Cathedral in Finland ; Roskilde Cathedral in Denmark ; and Uppsala Cathedral in Sweden. On 31 October 1999, ( the 482nd anniversary of Reformation Day, Martin Luther ‘s stake of the 95 Theses ), representatives of the Catholic Church ‘s Pontifical Council for Promoting christian Unity and the Lutheran World Federation signed a Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, as a gesture of oneness. The sign was a yield of a theological dialogue that had been going on between the Lutheran World Federation and the Holy See since 1965 .
John Paul II had full relations with the Church of England, as besides with other parts of the Anglican Communion. He was the first reigning pope to travel to the United Kingdom, in 1982, where he met Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. He preached in Canterbury Cathedral and received Robert Runcie, the Archbishop of Canterbury. He said that he was disappointed by the Church of England ‘s decision to ordain women and saw it as a step away from one between the Anglican Communion and the Catholic Church. [ 221 ] In 1980, John Paul II issued a arcadian Provision allowing marry former Episcopal priests to become catholic priests, and for the credence of former Episcopal Church parishes into the Catholic Church. He allowed the creation of the a form of the Roman Rite, known informally by some as the Anglican Use, which incorporates selected elements of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer that are compatible with catholic doctrine. He permitted Archbishop Patrick Flores of San Antonio, Texas, to establish Our Lady of the Atonement Catholic Church, in concert as the inaugural parish for the use of this loanblend liturgy. [ 222 ]
Relations with judaism
Relations between Catholicism and Judaism improved dramatically during the papacy of John Paul II. [ 87 ] [ 116 ] He spoke frequently about the Church ‘s relationship with the jewish faith. [ 87 ] There can be little doubt that his attitude was shaped in part by his own experience of the frightful destiny of the Jews in Poland and the remainder of Central Europe in the 1930s and 1940s. In 1979, John Paul II visited the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, where many of his compatriots ( by and large Jews ) had perished during the german occupation there in World War II, the first pope to do so. In 1998, he issued We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah, which outlined his think on the Holocaust. [ 223 ] He became the first pope known to have made an official papal visit to a synagogue, when he visited the Great Synagogue of Rome on 13 April 1986. [ 224 ] [ 225 ] On 30 December 1993, John Paul II established formal diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel, acknowledging its centrality in jewish life and religion. [ 224 ] On 7 April 1994, he hosted the Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocaust. It was the first-ever Vatican consequence dedicated to the memory of the six million Jews murdered in World War II. This concert, which was conceived and conducted by US conductor Gilbert Levine, was attended by the Chief Rabbi of Rome Elio Toaff, the President of Italy Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, and survivors of the Holocaust from around the earth. The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, actor Richard Dreyfuss and cellist Lynn Harrell performed on this occasion under Levine ‘s direction. [ 226 ] [ 227 ] On the good morning of the concert, the pope received the attending members of survivor community in a special hearing in the Apostolic Palace. In March 2000, John Paul II visited Yad Vashem, the national Holocaust memorial in Israel, and late made history by touching one of the holiest sites in Judaism, the Western Wall in Jerusalem, [ 116 ] placing a letter inside it ( in which he prayed for forgiveness for the actions against Jews ). [ 115 ] [ 116 ] [ 224 ] In part of his address he said :
“ I assure the jewish people the Catholic Church … is deeply saddened by the hate, acts of persecution and displays of anti-semitism directed against the Jews by Christians at any clock time and in any place, ”
and he added that there were
“ no words impregnable enough to deplore the awful tragedy of the Holocaust. ” [ 115 ] [ 116 ]
israeli cabinet minister Rabbi Michael Melchior, who hosted the pope ‘s visit, said he was “ very moved ” by the pope ‘s gesture. [ 115 ] [ 116 ]
It was beyond history, beyond memory. [ 115 ]
We are profoundly saddened by the demeanor of those who in the run of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant. [ 228 ]
In October 2003, the Anti-Defamation League ( ADL ) issued a affirmation congratulating John Paul II on entering the 25th year of his papacy. In January 2005, John Paul II became the first pope known to receive a priestly blessing from a rabbi, when Rabbis Benjamin Blech, Barry Dov Schwartz, and Jack Bemporad visited the Pontiff at Clementine Hall in the Apostolic Palace. [ 229 ] immediately after John Paul II ‘s death, the Anti-Defamation League said in a statement that he had revolutionised Catholic-Jewish relations, saying, “ more change for the better took place in his 27-year Papacy than in the closely 2,000 years earlier. ” [ 230 ] In another statement issued by the Australia/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council, Director Dr Colin Rubenstein said, “ The Pope will be remembered for his inspiring religious leadership in the lawsuit of freedom and world. He achieved far more in terms of transforming relations with both the jewish people and the State of Israel than any early visualize in the history of the Catholic Church. ” [ 224 ]
With Judaism, therefore, we have a relationship which we do not have with any other religion. You are our dearly beloved brothers, and in a certain way, it could be said that you are our elder brothers. [ 231 ]
In an interview with the polish Press Agency, Michael Schudrich, head rabbi of Poland, said that never in history did anyone do as much for Christian-Jewish dialogue as John Paul II, adding that many Jews had a greater obedience for the late pope than for some rabbi. Schudrich praised John Paul II for condemning anti-semitism as a sin, which no previous pope had done. [ 232 ] On John Paul II ‘s blessedness the Chief Rabbi of Rome Riccardo Di Segni said in an interview with the Vatican newspaper L’Osservatore Romano that “ John Paul II was revolutionist because he tore down a thousand-year wall of Catholic distrust of the jewish earth. ” meanwhile, Elio Toaff, the erstwhile Chief Rabbi of Rome, said that :
memorial of the Pope Karol Wojtyła will remain strong in the collective jewish memory because of his appeals to fraternity and the emotional state of tolerance, which excludes all ferocity. In the stormy history of relations between Roman popes and Jews in the ghetto in which they were closed for over three centuries in humiliating circumstances, John Paul II is a bright figure in his singularity. In relations between our two capital religions in the new hundred that was stained with bally wars and the plague of racism, the inheritance of John Paul II remains one of the few spiritual islands guaranteeing survival and homo progress. [ 233 ]
Relations with early world religions
In his book-length consultation Crossing the Threshold of Hope with the italian journalist Vittorio Messori published in 1995, John Paul II draws parallels between animism and Christianity. He says :
… it would be helpful to recall … the animist religions which stress ancestor worship. It seems that those who practice them are particularly conclusion to Christianity, and among them, the Church ‘s missionaries besides find it easier to speak a common language. Is there, possibly, in this fear of ancestors a kind of homework for the Christian faith in the Communion of Saints, in which all believers—whether living or dead—form a single community, a single body ? [ … ] There is nothing strange, then, that the African and asian animists would become believers in Christ more well than followers of the capital religions of the Far East. [ 234 ]
In 1985, the pope visited the african state of Togo, where 60 per penny of the population espouses animist beliefs. To honour the pope, animist religious leaders met him at a Catholic Marian shrine in the forest, much to the pope ‘s delight. John Paul II proceeded to call for the motivation for religious tolerance, praise nature, and emphasised coarse elements between animism and Christianity, saying :
nature, excessive and excellent in this sphere of forests and lakes, impregnates spirits and hearts with its mystery and orients them ad lib toward the mystery of He who is the generator of biography. It is this religious opinion that animates you and one can say that animates all of your compatriots. [ 235 ]
During the coronation of President Thomas Boni Yayi of Benin as a coroneted Yoruba captain on 20 December 2008, the reigning Ooni of Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Olubuse II, referred to John Paul II as a former recipient of the same royal honor. [ 236 ]
Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, visited John Paul II eight times. The two men held many like views and understand similar plights, both coming from nations affected by Communism and both serving as heads of major religious bodies. [ 237 ] [ 238 ] As Archbishop of Kraków, long before the 14th Dalai Lama was a world-famous name, Wojtyła held limited Masses to pray for the Tibetan people ‘s non-violent contend for freedom from Maoist China. [ 239 ] During his 1995 visit to Sri Lanka, a state where a majority of the population adheres to Theravada Buddhism, John Paul II expressed his admiration for buddhism :
In particular I express my highest involve for the followers of Buddhism, the majority religion in Sri Lanka, with its … four great values of … loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and composure ; with its ten-spot transcendental virtues and the joy of the Sangha expressed therefore beautifully in the Theragathas. I ardently hope that my visit will serve to strengthen the good will between us, and that it will reassure everyone of the Catholic Church ‘s desire for interreligious negotiation and cooperation in building a more fair and fraternal earth. To everyone I extend the hand of friendship, recalling the excellent words of the Dhammapada : “ Better than a thousand useless words is one unmarried word that gives peace …. ” [ 240 ]
John Paul II was the first Pope to enter and pray in a mosque, visiting the grave of John the Baptist at Umayyad Mosque, Damascus. John Paul II made considerable efforts to improve relations between Catholicism and Islam. [ 241 ] He formally supported the project of the Great Mosque in Rome and participated in the inauguration in 1995. On 6 May 2001, he became the first Catholic pope to enter and pray in a mosque, namely the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria. respectfully removing his shoes, he entered the former Byzantine-era Christian church dedicated to John the Baptist, who is besides revered as a prophet of Islam. He gave a address including the argument :
“ For all the times that Muslims and Christians have offended one another, we need to seek forgiveness from the Almighty and to offer each other forgiveness. ” [ 114 ]
He besides kissed the Qur’an while in Syria, an act that made him popular among Muslims but disturbed many Catholics. [ 242 ] In 2004, John Paul II hosted the “ Papal Concert of Reconciliation “, which brought together leaders of Islam with leaders of the Jewish residential district and of the Catholic Church at the Vatican for a concert by the Kraków Philharmonic Choir from Poland, the London Philharmonic Choir from the United Kingdom, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra from the United States, and the Ankara State Polyphonic Choir of Turkey. [ 243 ] [ 244 ] [ 245 ] [ 246 ] The event was conceived and conducted by Sir Gilbert Levine, KCSG and was broadcast throughout the universe. [ 243 ] [ 244 ] [ 245 ] [ 246 ] John Paul II oversaw the issue of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, which makes a special provision for Muslims ; therein, it is written, “ together with us they adore the one, merciful God, world ‘s pronounce on the last day. ” [ 247 ]
In 1995, John Paul II held a merging with 21 Jains, organised by the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. He praised Mohandas Gandhi for his “ unshakeable religion in God “, assured the Jains that the Catholic Church will continue to engage in dialogue with their religion and spoke of the common need to aid the poor people. The jain leaders were impressed with the pope ‘s “ transparency and simplicity ”, and the meet received much attention in the Gujarat state in western India, home plate to many Jains. [ 248 ]
Assassination attempts and plots
As he entered St. Peter ‘s Square to address an audience on 13 May 1981, [ 249 ] John Paul II was shot and critically wounded by Mehmet Ali Ağca, [ 32 ] an expert turkish gunman who was a member of the militant fascist group Grey Wolves. [ 251 ] The assassin used a Browning 9 millimeter semi-automatic pistol, [ 252 ] shooting the pope in the abdomen and perforating his colon and little intestine multiple times. [ 100 ] John Paul II was rushed into the Vatican building complex and then to the Gemelli Hospital. On the way to the hospital, he lost awareness. flush though the two bullets missed his mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta, he lost about three-quarters of his rake. He undergo five hours of surgery to treat his wounds. Surgeons performed a colostomy, temporarily rerouting the upper part of the large intestine to let the damaged lower contribution bring around. When he briefly find awareness before being operated on, he instructed the doctors not to remove his Brown Scapular during the operation. [ 254 ] One of the few people allowed in to see him at the Gemelli Clinic was one of his closest friends philosopher Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, who arrived on Saturday 16 May and kept him caller while he recovered from hand brake operation. [ 91 ] The pope subsequently stated that the blessed Virgin Mary helped keep him alive throughout his ordeal .
Could I forget that the event in St. Peter ‘s Square took home on the day and at the hour when the first appearance of the Mother of Christ to the poor little peasants has been remembered for over sixty years at Fátima, Portugal ? For in everything that happened to me on that very sidereal day, I felt that extraordinary motherly protective covering and concern, which turned out to be stronger than the deadly bullet train .
Ağca was caught and restrained by a nun and other bystanders until police arrived. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Two days after Christmas in 1983, John Paul II visited Ağca in prison. John Paul II and Ağca spoke privately for about twenty minutes. John Paul II said, “ What we talked approximately will have to remain a hidden between him and me. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned and who has my complete trust. ” numerous other theories were advanced to explain the character assassination undertake, some of them controversial. One such theory, advanced by Michael Ledeen and heavily pushed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency at the time of the assassination but never substantiated by evidence, was that the Soviet Union was behind the try on John Paul II ‘s life in retaliation for the pope ‘s support of Solidarity, the Catholic, pro-democratic polish workers ‘ bowel movement. [ 251 ] [ 257 ] This hypothesis was supported by the 2006 Mitrokhin Commission, set up by Silvio Berlusconi and headed by Forza Italia senator Paolo Guzzanti, which alleged that Communist Bulgarian security departments were utilized to prevent the Soviet Union ‘s function from being uncovered, and concluded that soviet military news (Glavnoje Razvedyvatel’noje Upravlenije), not the KGB, were responsible. [ 257 ] russian Foreign Intelligence Service spokesman Boris Labusov called the accusation “ absurd ”. [ 257 ] The pope declared during a May 2002 visit to Bulgaria that the area ‘s Soviet-bloc-era leadership had nothing to do with the character assassination attack. [ 251 ] [ 257 ] however, his secretary, Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, alleged in his book A Life with Karol, that the pope was convinced privately that the former Soviet Union was behind the attack. [ 258 ] It was former discovered that many of John Paul II ‘s aides had foreign-government attachments ; [ 259 ] Bulgaria and Russia disputed the italian commission ‘s conclusions, pointing out that the pope had publicly denied the bulgarian connection. [ 257 ] A second assassination attack was made on 12 May 1982, precisely a day before the anniversary of the first attack on his life, in Fátima, Portugal when a man tried to stab John Paul II with a bayonet. [ 260 ] [ 261 ] [ 262 ] He was stopped by security guards. Stanisław Dziwisz belated said that John Paul II had been injured during the attempt but managed to hide a non-life-threatening wind. [ 260 ] [ 261 ] [ 262 ] The attacker, a traditionalist Catholic Spanish priest named Juan María Fernández y Krohn, [ 260 ] had been ordained as a priest by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of the Society of Saint Pius X and was opposed to the changes made by the second Vatican Council, saying that the pope was an agent of Communist Moscow and of the Marxist Eastern Bloc. Fernández y Krohn subsequently left the priesthood and served three years of a six-year sentence. [ 261 ] [ 262 ] The ex-priest was treated for mental illness and then expelled from Portugal to become a solicitor in Belgium. The Al-Qaeda -funded Bojinka diagram planned to kill John Paul II during a visit to the Philippines during World Youth Day 1995 celebrations. On 15 January 1995 a suicide bomber was planning to dress as a priest and detonate a bomb when the pope passed in his motorcade on his room to the San Carlos Seminary in Makati. The character assassination was supposed to divert attention from the adjacent phase of the operation. however, a chemical fire unwittingly started by the cell alerted police to their whereabouts, and all were arrested a workweek before the pope ‘s visit, and confessed to the plot. [ 264 ] In 2009 John Koehler, a diarist and former army intelligence officer, published Spies in the Vatican: The Soviet Union’s Cold War Against the Catholic Church. [ 265 ] Mining largely east german and polish mysterious patrol archives, Koehler says the character assassination attempts were “ KGB-backed ” and gives details. [ 266 ] During John Paul II ‘s papacy there were many clerics within the Vatican who on nomination, declined to be ordained, and then cryptically left the church. There is wide meditation that they were, in world, KGB agents .
John Paul II apologised to many groups that had suffered at the hands of the Catholic Church through the years. [ 87 ] Before becoming pope he had been a outstanding editor program and assistant of initiatives such as the Letter of Reconciliation of the polish Bishops to the german Bishops from 1965. As pope, he formally made populace apologies for over 100 wrongdoings, including : [ 268 ] [ 269 ] [ 270 ] [ 271 ]
The Great Jubilee of the year 2000 included a day of Prayer for Forgiveness of the Sins of the Church on 12 March 2000. On 20 November 2001, from a laptop in the Vatican, John Paul II sent his first electronic mail apologize for the Catholic sex abuse cases, the Church-backed “ Stolen Generations “ of Aboriginal children in Australia, and to China for the demeanor of Catholic missionaries in colonial times. [ 274 ]
When he became pope in 1978 at the old age of 58, John Paul II was an avid sport. He was extremely healthy and active, trot in the Vatican gardens, weight education, float, and hiking in the mountains. He was affectionate of football. The media contrasted the modern pope ‘s athleticism and clean-cut design to the poor people health of John Paul I and Paul VI, the portliness of John XXIII and the ceaseless claims of ailments of Pius XII. The entirely modern pope with a fitness regimen had been Pope Pius XI ( 1922–1939 ), who was an avid mountaineer. [ 275 ] [ 276 ] An Irish Independent article in the 1980s labelled John Paul II the keep-fit pope. however, after over twenty-six years as pope, two assassination attempts, one of which injured him badly, and a number of cancer scares, John Paul ‘s physical health declined. In 2001 he was diagnosed as suffering from Parkinson ‘s disease. [ 277 ] International observers had suspected this for some time, but it was only publicly acknowledged by the Vatican in 2003. Despite difficulty speaking more than a few sentences at a time, trouble hearing, and austere osteoarthrosis, he continued to tour the worldly concern although rarely walking in public .
Death and funeral
John Paul II was hospitalised with breathing problems caused by a bust of influenza on 1 February 2005. [ 278 ] He left the hospital on 10 February, but was subsequently hospitalised again with breathing problems two weeks late and underwent a tracheostomy. [ 279 ]
Final illness and death
On 31 March 2005, following a urinary nerve pathway infection, he developed septic shock, a shape of contagion with a high fever and depleted lineage atmospheric pressure, but was not hospitalised. rather, he was monitored by a team of consultants at his secret residency. This was taken as an reading by the pope, and those airless to him, that he was nearing death ; it would have been in accord with his wishes to die in the Vatican. Later that sidereal day, Vatican sources announced that John Paul II had been given the Anointing of the Sick by his ally and secretary Stanisław Dziwisz. The sidereal day before his death, one of his closest personal friends, Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka visited him at his bedside. [ 89 ] [ 281 ] During the concluding days of the pope ‘s life, the lights were kept burning through the night where he lay in the Papal apartment on the top floor of the Apostolic Palace. Tens of thousands of people assembled and held vigil in St. Peter ‘s Square and the surrounding streets for two days. Upon hearing of this, the dying pope was said to have stated : “ I have searched for you, and now you have come to me, and I thank you. ” [ 282 ] On Saturday, 2 April 2005, at approximately 15:30 CEST, John Paul II spoke his final words in Polish, “Pozwólcie mi odejść do domu Ojca” ( “ Allow me to depart to the house of the Father ” ), to his aides, and fell into a coma about four hours late. [ 282 ] [ 283 ] The Mass of the vigil of the Second Sunday of Easter commemorating the canonization of Saint Maria Faustina on 30 April 2000, had barely been celebrated at his bedside, presided over by Stanisław Dziwisz and two polish associates. present at the bedside was a cardinal Lubomyr Husar from Ukraine, who served as a priest with John Paul in Poland, along with polish nuns of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, who ran the papal family. John Paul II died in his private apartment at 21:37 CEST ( 19:37 UTC ) of heart failure from profound hypotension and arrant circulatory collapse from septic shock, 46 days before his 85th birthday. [ 283 ] [ 284 ] His death was verified when an electrocardiogram that ran for 20 minutes showed a flatline. [ 286 ] He had no close family by the time of his death ; his feelings are reflected in his words written in 2000 at the end of his last Will and Testament. Stanisław Dziwisz late said he had not burned the pope ‘s personal notes despite the request being part of the will. [ 288 ]
The death of the pope set in apparent motion rituals and traditions dating back to medieval times. The Rite of Visitation took set from 4 April 2005 to 7 April 2005 at St. Peter ‘s Basilica. John Paul II ‘s will, published on 7 April 2005, [ 289 ] revealed that the pope contemplated being buried in his native Poland but left the concluding decision to The College of Cardinals, which in pass, prefer burying below St. Peter ‘s Basilica, honouring the pope ‘s request to be placed “ in bare earth ”. The Requiem Mass held on 8 April 2005 was said to have set populace records both for attendance and number of heads of state show at a funeral. [ 272 ] [ 290 ] [ 291 ] [ 292 ] (See: List of Dignitaries.) It was the single largest gain of heads of state up to that time, surpassing the funerals of Winston Churchill ( 1965 ) and Josip Broz Tito ( 1980 ). Four kings, five queens, at least 70 presidents and prime ministers, and more than 14 leaders of other religions attended. [ 290 ] An estimated four million mourners gathered in and around Vatican City. [ 272 ] [ 291 ] [ 292 ] [ 293 ] Between 250,000 and 300,000 watched the event from within the Vatican ‘s walls. [ 292 ] The Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, conducted the ceremony. John Paul II was interred in the grottoes under the basilica, the Tomb of the Popes. He was lowered into a grave created in the same alcove previously occupied by the remains of John XXIII. The alcove had been empty since John XXIII ‘s remains had been moved into the main soundbox of the basilica after his blessedness .
title “ the Great ”
Upon the death of John Paul II, a number of clergy at the Vatican and laymen [ 100 ] [ 272 ] [ 294 ] began referring to the late pope as “ John Paul the Great ” — in theory only the one-fourth pope to be sol applaud. [ 100 ] [ 294 ] [ 295 ] [ 296 ] Cardinal Angelo Sodano specifically referred to John Paul as “ the Great ” in his published written homily for the pope ‘s funeral Mass of Repose. [ 297 ] [ 298 ] The south African Catholic newspaper The Southern Cross has referred to him in print as “ John Paul II the Great ”. [ 299 ] Some Catholic educational institutions in the US have additionally changed their names to incorporate “ the Great ”, including John Paul the Great Catholic University and schools called some version of John Paul the Great High School. Scholars of canon law say that there is no official serve for declaring a pope “ Great ” ; the title plainly establishes itself through popular and cover use, [ 272 ] [ 300 ] [ 301 ] as was the font with observe profane leaders ( for model, Alexander III of Macedon became popularly known as Alexander the Great ). The three popes who today normally are known as “ Great ” are Leo I, who reigned from 440–461 and persuaded Attila the Hun to withdraw from Rome ; Gregory I, 590–604, after whom the gregorian Chant is named ; and Pope Nicholas I, 858–867, who consolidated the Catholic Church in the western populace in the Middle Ages. [ 294 ] John Paul ‘s successor, Benedict XVI, has not used the terminus directly in public speeches, but has made devious references to “ the big Pope John Paul II ” in his beginning address from the loggia of St. Peter ‘s Basilica, at the twentieth World Youth Day in Germany 2005 when he said in polish : “ As the great Pope John Paul II would say : Keep the flame of religion animated in your lives and your people ” ; [ 302 ] and in May 2006 during a chew the fat to Poland where he repeatedly made references to “ the great John Paul ” and “ my big harbinger ”. [ 303 ]
The grave of John Paul II in the Vatican Chapel of Saint Sebastian within St. Peter ‘s Basilica where it has been since 2011 .
Institutions named after John Paul II
Inspired by calls of “Santo Subito! “ ( “ [ Make him a ] Saint immediately ! ” ) from the herd gathered during the funeral Mass that he celebrated, [ 312 ] [ 313 ] [ 314 ] [ 315 ] Benedict XVI began the blessedness work for his harbinger, bypassing the normal limitation that five years must pass after a person ‘s death before beginning the blessedness action. [ 313 ] [ 314 ] [ 316 ] [ 317 ] In an audience with Pope Benedict XVI, Camillo Ruini, Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome, who was responsible for promoting the cause for canonization of any person who died within that diocese, cited “ exceeding circumstances ”, which suggested that the waiting time period could be waived. [ 33 ] [ 272 ] [ 318 ] This decision was announced on 13 May 2005, the Feast of Our dame of Fátima and the twenty-fourth anniversary of the character assassination attempt on John Paul II at St. Peter ‘s Square. [ 319 ] In early 2006, it was reported that the Vatican was investigating a possible miracle associated with John Paul II. Sister Marie Simon-Pierre, a french conical buoy and extremity of the Congregation of Little Sisters of Catholic Maternity Wards, confined to her bed by Parkinson ‘s disease, [ 314 ] [ 320 ] was reported to have experienced a “ complete and lasting bring around after members of her residential district prayed for the intervention of Pope John Paul II ”. [ 199 ] [ 272 ] [ 312 ] [ 314 ] [ 321 ] [ 322 ] As of May 2008, Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre, then 46, [ 312 ] [ 314 ] was working again at a motherliness hospital run by her religious institute. [ 317 ] [ 320 ] [ 323 ] [ 324 ] “ I was sick and now I am cured, ” she told reporter Gerry Shaw. “ I am cured, but it is up to the church service to say whether it was a miracle or not. ” [ 320 ] [ 323 ] On 28 May 2006, Pope Benedict XVI celebrated Mass before an estimate 900,000 people in John Paul II ‘s native Poland. During his homily, he encouraged prayers for the early canonization of John Paul II and stated that he hoped canonization would happen “ in the near future ”. [ 320 ] [ 325 ]
In January 2007, Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz announced that the consultation phase of the beatification procedure, in Italy and Poland, was nearing completion. [ 272 ] [ 320 ] [ 326 ] In February 2007, second class relics of John Paul II—pieces of white papal cassocks he used to wear—were freely distributed with prayer cards for the cause, a distinctive pious practice after a angelic Catholic ‘s death. [ 327 ] [ 328 ] On 8 March 2007, the Vicariate of Rome announced that the diocesan phase of John Paul ‘s induce for beatification was at an end. Following a ceremony on 2 April 2007—the second anniversary of the Pontiff ‘s death—the induce proceeded to the examination of the committee of lay, clerical, and episcopal members of the Vatican ‘s congregation for the Causes of Saints, to conduct a branch probe. [ 313 ] [ 320 ] [ 326 ] On the one-fourth anniversary of John Paul II ‘s death, 2 April 2009, Cardinal Dziwisz, told reporters of a make bold miracle that had recently occurred at the erstwhile pope ‘s grave in St. Peter ‘s Basilica. [ 323 ] [ 329 ] [ 330 ] A nine-year-old polish boy from Gdańsk, who was suffering from kidney cancer and was completely unable to walk, had been visiting the grave with his parents. On leaving St. Peter ‘s Basilica, the male child told them, “ I want to walk, ” and began walking normally. [ 329 ] [ 330 ] [ 331 ] On 16 November 2009, a dialog box of reviewers at the Congregation for the Causes of Saints voted unanimously that John Paul II had lived a life of epic virtue. [ 332 ] [ 333 ] On 19 December 2009, Pope Benedict XVI signed the first of two decrees needed for beatification and proclaimed John Paul II “ Venerable ”, asserting that he had lived a epic, virtuous life. [ 332 ] [ 333 ] The second vote and the second signed rule certifying the authenticity of the first miracle, the cure of Sister Marie Simon-Pierre, a french nun, from Parkinson ‘s disease. Once the second decree is signed, the position ( the report card on the induce, with documentation about his life and writings and with information on the induce ) is complete. [ 333 ] He can then be beatified. [ 332 ] [ 333 ] Some speculated that he would be beatified erstwhile during ( or soon after ) the month of the 32nd anniversary of his 1978 election, in October 2010. As Monsignor Oder said, this path would have been potential if the second decree were signed in clock time by Benedict XVI, stating that a posthumous miracle immediately attributable to his intervention had occurred, completing the positio .
Candles around monument to John Paul II in Zaspa, Gdańsk at the time of his death The Vatican announced on 14 January 2011 that Pope Benedict XVI had confirmed the miracle involving Sister Marie Simon-Pierre and that John Paul II was to be beatified on 1 May, the Feast of Divine Mercy. [ 334 ] 1 May is commemorated in former communist countries, such as Poland, and some western european countries as May Day, and John Paul II was well known for his contributions to communism ‘s relatively peaceful death. [ 100 ] [ 121 ] In March 2011 the polish mint issued a gold 1,000 polish złoty coin ( equivalent to US $ 350 ), with the Pope ‘s visualize to commemorate his beatification. [ 335 ] On 29 April 2011, John Paul II ‘s coffin was disinterred from the grotto below St. Peter ‘s Basilica ahead of his beatification, as tens of thousands of people arrived in Rome for one of the biggest events since his funeral. [ 336 ] [ 337 ] John Paul II ‘s remains, which were not exposed, were placed in front of the Basilica ‘s main altar, where believers could pay their respect before and after the beatification mass in St. Peter ‘s Square on 1 May 2011. On 3 May 2011 his remains were interred in the marble altar in Pier Paolo Cristofari Chapel of St. Sebastian, where Pope Innocent XI was buried. This more big localization, future to the Chapel of the Pietà, the Chapel of the blasted Sacrament, and statues of Popes Pius XI and Pius XII was intended to allow more pilgrims to view his memorial. John Paul II ‘s body is located near the bodies of Pope Pius X and Pope John XXIII, whose bodies were reinterred in the Basilica after their own beatifications and in concert are three of the four popes beatified in the last century. The only pope who weas not exhumed and reinterred after becoming a blessed in the end century was Pope Paul VI, who remains buried in the papal grotto. Pope John Paul I will become the fifth pope to be beatified in the past hundred, but it is not known if his remains will be reinterred following his blessedness. [ 338 ] [ 339 ] In July 2012, a colombian serviceman, Marco Fidel Rojas, the former mayor of Huila, Colombia, testified that he was “ miraculously cured ” of Parkinson ‘s disease after a tripper to Rome where he met John Paul II and prayed with him. Dr. Antonio Schlesinger Piedrahita, a celebrated neurologist in Colombia, certified Fidel ‘s healing. The software documentation was then sent to the Vatican position for sainthood causes. [ 340 ] In September 2020, Poland unveiled a sculpture of him in Warsaw, designed by Jerzy Kalina [ pl ] and installed outside the National Museum, holding up a meteorite. [ 341 ] In the same month, a keepsake containing his lineage was stolen from the Spoleto Cathedral in Italy. [ 342 ]
The canonization of John Paul II and John XXIII To be eligible for canonization ( being declared a saint ) by the Catholic Church, two miracles must be attributed to a candidate. The first miracle attributed to John Paul was the above mentioned bring around of a man ‘s Parkinson ‘s disease, which was recognised during the beatification process. According to an article on the Catholic News Service ( CNS ) dated 23 April 2013, a vatican commission of doctors concluded that a curative had no natural ( checkup ) explanation, which is the first necessity for a claim miracle to be formally documented. [ 343 ] [ 344 ] [ 345 ] The second miracle was deemed to have taken position shortly after the late pope ‘s blessedness on 1 May 2011 ; it was reported to be the mend of costa Rican womanhood Floribeth Mora of an otherwise end brain aneurysm. [ 346 ] A vatican jury of expert theologians examined the attest, determined that it was directly attributable to the intercession of John Paul II, and recognised it as marvelous. [ 344 ] [ 345 ] The following stage was for Cardinals who compose the membership of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints to give their public opinion to Pope Francis to decide whether to sign and promulgate the rule and set a date for canonization. [ 344 ] [ 345 ] [ 347 ] On 4 July 2013, Pope Francis confirmed his approval of John Paul II ‘s canonization, formally recognising the second miracle attributed to his intercession. He was canonised together with John XXIII. [ 24 ] [ 348 ] The date of the canonization was on 27 April 2014, Divine Mercy Sunday. [ 349 ] [ 350 ] The canonization Mass for Blessed Popes John Paul II and John XXIII, was celebrated by Pope Francis ( with Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI ), on 27 April 2014 in St. Peter ‘s Square at the Vatican ( John Paul II had died on vigil of Divine Mercy Sunday in 2005 ). About 150 cardinals and 700 bishops concelebrated the Mass, and at least 500,000 people attended the Mass, with an estimated 300,000 others watching from video recording screens placed around Rome. [ 351 ]
beatification of the Pope ‘s parents
Poland The grave of the parents of John Paul II at Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków On 10 October 2019, the Archdiocese of Krakow and the polish Bishops ‘ Conference approved nihil obstat the opening of the beatification cause of the parents of its patron saint John Paul II, Karol Wojtyła Sr. and Emilia Kaczorowska. It gained blessing from the Holy See to open the diocesan phase of the lawsuit on 7 May 2020. [ 352 ]
criticism and controversy
John Paul II was wide criticised for a variety of his views. He was a target of criticism from progressives for his opposition to the ordering of women and use of contraception, [ 32 ] [ 353 ] and from traditional Catholics for his support for the second Vatican Council and its reform of the liturgy. John Paul II ‘s reply to child sexual misuse within the Church has besides come under heavy reprimand .
sex misuse scandals
John Paul II was criticised by representatives of the victims of clergy sexual mistreat [ 354 ] for failing to respond promptly enough to the Catholic sex abuse crisis. In his response, he stated that “ there is no station in the priesthood and religious animation for those who would harm the young. ” [ 355 ] The Church instituted reforms to prevent future abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees [ 356 ] and, because a significant majority of victims were boys, disallowing ordination of men with “ deep-rooted homosexual tendencies ”. [ 357 ] [ 358 ] They immediately require dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an probe and remove the accused from duty. [ 356 ] [ 359 ] In 2008, the Church asserted that the scandal was a very serious problem and estimated that it was “ credibly caused by ‘no more than 1 per penny ‘ “ ( or 5,000 ) of the over 500,000 catholic priests worldwide. [ 360 ] [ 361 ] In April 2002, John Paul II, despite being frail from Parkinson ‘s disease, summoned all the american cardinals to the Vatican to discuss possible solutions to the issue of sexual pervert in the american english Church. He asked them to “ diligently investigate accusations ”. John Paul II suggested that american bishops be more open and crystalline in dealing with such scandals and emphasised the character of seminary coach to prevent sexual aberrance among future priests. In what The New York Times called “ unusually direct linguistic process ”, John Paul condemned the arrogance of priests that led to the scandals :
Priests and candidates for the priesthood frequently live at a flush both materially and educationally superior to that of their families and the members of their own age group. It is therefore very easy for them to succumb to the temptation of think of themselves as better than others. When this happens, the ideal of priestly service and self-denying dedication can fade, leaving the priest dissatisfied and disheartened. [ 362 ]
The pope read a argument intended for the american cardinals, calling the sexual activity abuse “ an appalling sin ” and said the priesthood had no room for such men. [ 363 ] In 2002, Archbishop Juliusz Paetz, the Catholic Archbishop of Poznań, was accused of molesting seminarians. [ 364 ] John Paul II accepted his resignation, and placed sanctions on him, prohibiting Paetz from exercising his ministry as bishop. [ 365 ] It was reported that these restrictions were lifted, though Vatican spokesperson Federico Lombardi strenuously denied this saying “ his rehabilitation was without foundation ”. In 2003, John Paul II reiterated that “ there is no topographic point in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young. ” [ 355 ] In April 2003, a three-day league was held, titled “ Abuse of Children and Young People by Catholic Priests and Religious ”, where eight non-catholic psychiatric experts were invited to speak to near all Vatican dicasteries ‘ representatives. The panel of experts overwhelmingly opposed implementation of policies of “ zero-tolerance ” such as was proposed by the US Conference of Catholic Bishops. One adept called such policies a “ case of overkill ” since they do not permit flexibility to allow for differences among individual cases. [ 366 ] In 2004, John Paul II recalled Bernard Francis Law to be Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major in Rome. Law had previously resigned as archbishop of Boston in 2002 in response to the Catholic Church sexual misuse cases after church documents were revealed that suggested he had covered up sexual mistreat committed by priests in his archdiocese. [ 367 ] Law resigned from this military position in November 2011. [ 363 ] John Paul II was a firm athletic supporter of the Legion of Christ, and in 1998 discontinued investigations into sexual wrongdoing by its drawing card Marcial Maciel, who in 2005 resigned his leadership and was late requested by the Vatican to withdraw from his ministry. however, Maciel ‘s trial began in 2004 during the papacy of John Paul II, but the Pope died before it ended and the conclusions were known. [ 368 ] In an consultation with L’Osservatore Romano, Pope Francis said : “ I am grateful to Pope Benedict, who dared to say this publicly ( when more facts began to come to light after Degollado ’ s death in 2008, Pope Benedict XVI in 2010 launched another investigation and on 1 May 2010 announced a contract about the crimes of the founder of the Legionaries ), and to Pope John Paul II, who dared to give the green light to the Legionaries ’ event. ” [ 369 ] On 10 November 2020, the Vatican published a report which found that John Paul II learned of allegations of sexual familiarity against former cardinal Theodore McCarrick, who at the fourth dimension was serving as Archbishop of Newark, through a 1999 letter from Cardinal John O’Connor warning him that appointing McCarrick to be Archbishop of Washington D.C., a put which had recently been opened, would be a error. John Paul II ordered an probe, which stalled when three of the four bishops tasked with investigating claims allegedly brought back “ inaccurate or incomplete information. ” John Paul II planned on not giving McCarrick the appointment anyhow, but relented and gave him the appointment after McCarrick wrote a letter of abnegation. He created McCarrick a cardinal in 2001. McCarrick would finally be laicized after allegations surfaced that he abused minors. [ 370 ] [ 371 ] George Weigel, a biographer of John Paul II, defended the pope ‘s actions as follows : “ Theodore McCarrick fooled a set of people … and he deceived John Paul II in a way that is laid out in about biblical fashion in [ the Vatican ‘s ] report. ” [ 372 ] In a 2019 interview with Mexican television, Pope Francis defended John Paul II ‘s bequest on protecting minors against clerical intimate maltreatment. He said that John Paul II was “ often misled, ” as in the subject of Hans Hermann Groër. Francis said that with respect to the case of Marcial Maciel :
“ Ratzinger was brave, and so was John Paul II. [ … ] With respect to John Paul II, we have to understand certain attitudes because he came from a closed global, from behind the Iron Curtain, where communism was inactive in wedge. There was a defensive brain. We have to understand this well, and no one can doubt the saintliness of this capital homo and his good will. He was capital, he was great. ” [ 373 ] [ 374 ]
Opus Dei controversies
John Paul II was criticised for his support of the Opus Dei prelacy and the 2002 canonization of its fall through, Josemaría Escrivá, whom he called “ the canonize of ordinary life ”. [ 375 ] [ 376 ] other movements and religious organisations of the Church went decidedly under his wing Legion of Christ, the Neocatechumenal Way, Schoenstatt, the charismatic movement, etc. And he was accused repeatedly of taking a easy hand with them, specially in the case of Marcial Maciel, founder of the Legion of Christ. [ 377 ] In 1984 John Paul II appointed Joaquín Navarro-Valls, a extremity of Opus Dei, as Director of the Vatican Press Office. An Opus Dei spokesman said that “ the influence of Opus Dei in the Vatican has been exaggerated ”. [ 378 ] Of the about 200 cardinals in the Catholic Church, only two are known to be members of Opus Dei. [ 379 ]
Banco Ambrosiano scandal
John Paul II was alleged to have links with Banco Ambrosiano, an italian bank that collapsed in 1982. [ 199 ] At the center of the bank ‘s failure was its chair, Roberto Calvi, and his membership in the illegal Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due ( aka P2 ). The Vatican Bank was Banco Ambrosiano ‘s main stockholder, and the death of John Paul I in 1978 is rumoured to be linked to the Ambrosiano scandal. [ 200 ] Calvi, often referred to as “ God ‘s Banker ”, was besides involved with the Vatican Bank, Istituto per lupus erythematosus Opere di Religione, and was close to Bishop Paul Marcinkus, the trust ‘s chair. Ambrosiano besides provided funds for political parties in Italy, and for both the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua and its Sandinista opposition. It has been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank provided money for Solidarity in Poland. [ 199 ] [ 200 ] Calvi used his complex network of abroad banks and companies to move money out of Italy, to inflate share prices, and to arrange massive unbarred loans. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a reputation on Ambrosiano that predicted future calamity. [ 200 ] On 5 June 1982, two weeks before the crumble of Banco Ambrosiano, Calvi had written a letter of warning to John Paul II, stating that such a extroverted consequence would “ provoke a catastrophe of impossible proportions in which the Church will suffer the gravest price ”. [ 380 ] On 18 June 1982 Calvi ‘s body was found hanging from scaffolding below Blackfriars Bridge in the fiscal district of London. Calvi ‘s clothe was stuffed with bricks, and contained cash valued at US $ 14,000, in three different currencies. [ 381 ]
Problems with traditionalists
In addition to all the criticism from those demanding modernization, some Traditionalist Catholics denounced him a well. These issues included demanding a tax return to the Tridentine Mass [ 382 ] and repudiation of the reforms instituted after the second Vatican Council, such as the manipulation of the vernacular speech in the once Latin Roman Rite Mass, ecumenism, and the principle of religious shore leave. [ 383 ] In 1988, the controversial hidebound Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, founder of the Society of St. Pius X ( 1970 ), was excommunicated under John Paul II because of the unapproved ordination of four bishops, which Cardinal Ratzinger called a “ schismatic act ”. [ 384 ] The World Day of Prayer for Peace, [ 385 ] with a meeting in Assisi, Italy, in 1986, in which the pope prayed only with the Christians, [ 386 ] was criticised for giving the impression that syncretism and indifferentism were openly embraced by the Papal Magisterium. When a second base ‘Day of Prayer for Peace in the World ‘ [ 387 ] was held, in 2002, it was condemned as confusing the laity and compromising to delusive religions. Likewise criticised was his kissing [ 388 ] of the Qur’an in Damascus, Syria, on one of his travels on 6 May 2001. His call for religious exemption was not always supported ; bishops like Antônio de Castro Mayer promoted religious permissiveness, but at the same time rejected the Vatican II principle of religious shore leave as being liberal and already condemned by Pope Pius IX in his Syllabus errorum ( 1864 ) and at the first Vatican Council. [ 389 ]
religion and AIDS
John Paul II ‘s continued the tradition of advocating for the “ polish of life ” and, in solidarity with Pope Paul VI ‘s Humanae Vitae rejected artificial birth control, even in the use of condoms to prevent the spread of AIDS. [ 353 ] Critics have said that large families are caused by lack of contraception and exacerbate Third World poverty and problems such as street children in South America. John Paul II argued that the proper way to prevent the ranch of AIDS was not condom, but preferably, “ decline practice of sex, which presupposes chastity and fidelity. ” [ 353 ] The focus of John Paul II ‘s point is that the necessitate for artificial parturition dominance is itself artificial, and that principle of respecting the sacredness of life ought not be lease asunder in order to achieve the thoroughly of preventing AIDS .
There was hard criticism of the pope for the controversy surrounding the alleged manipulation of charitable sociable programmes as a mean of converting people in the Third World to Catholicism. [ 390 ] [ 391 ] The pope created an tumult in the indian subcontinent when he suggested that a big harvest of religion would be witnessed on the subcontinent in the third Christian millennium. [ 392 ]
Dictatorships in Latin America
John Paul visited General Augusto Pinochet, Chile ‘s military ruler. According to the United Press International, “ Pope John Paul II preached the indigence for peaceful change and greater participation up and down Chile … but stayed away from direct confrontation with Gen. Augusto Pinochet ‘s military government … disappoint Pinochet ‘s opponents who had hoped the pope would publicly condemn the government and bless their campaign for a render to democracy. ” [ 393 ] John Paul endorsed Pío Cardinal Laghi, who critics say supported the “ Dirty War “ in Argentina and was on friendly terms with the Argentine generals of the military dictatorship, playing regular tennis matches with Navy ‘s representative in the military junta, Admiral Emilio Eduardo Massera. [ 394 ] [ 395 ] [ 396 ] [ 397 ]
In 1988, when John Paul II was delivering a speech to the European Parliament, Ian Paisley, the leader of the democratic Unionist Party and Moderator of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, shouted “ I denounce you as the antichrist ! ” [ 398 ] [ 399 ] and held up a loss standard reading “ Pope John Paul II ANTICHRIST ”. Otto von Habsburg ( the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary ), an MEP for Germany, snatched Paisley ‘s streamer, tore it up and, along with other MEPs, helped eject him from the chamber. [ 398 ] [ 400 ] [ 401 ] [ 402 ] [ 403 ] The pope continued with his address after Paisley had been ejected. [ 400 ] [ 404 ] [ 405 ]
A count of quotes about the apparitions of Međugorje, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, have been attributed to John Paul II. [ 406 ] In 1998, when a certain german gathered assorted statements that were purportedly made by the pope and Cardinal Ratzinger, and then forwarded them to the Vatican in the form of a memo, Ratzinger responded in writing on 22 July 1998 : “ The only thing I can say regarding statements on Međugorje ascribed to the Holy Father and myself is that they are dispatch invention. ” ( frei erfunden ). ( Link not working ) alike claims were besides rebuked by the Vatican ‘s Secretariate of State .
Some Catholic theologians disagreed with the birdcall for the blessedness of John Paul II. Eleven dissentient theologians, including Jesuit professor José María Castillo and italian theologian Giovanni Franzoni, said that his stance against contraception and the ordination of women deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the Church scandals during his pontificate presented “ facts which according to their consciences and convictions should be an obstacle to beatification ”. [ 410 ] Some traditionalist Catholics opposed his beatification and canonization for his views on holy eucharist and participation in entreaty with enemies of the Church, heretics and non-Christians. [ 411 ] After the 2020 report about the wield of the intimate misconduct complaints against Theodore McCarrick, some called for John Paul II ‘s sainthood to be revoked. [ 412 ]
Karol Wojtyła was a Cracovia football team athletic supporter ( golf club retired count 1 in his award ). [ 413 ] Having played the game himself as a goalkeeper, John Paul II was a fan of English football team Liverpool, where his compatriot Jerzy Dudek played in the same position. [ 414 ] In 1973, while still the archbishop of Kraków, Karol Wojtyła befriended a Polish-born, late American philosopher, Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka. The thirty-two-year friendship ( and occasional academician collaboration ) lasted until his death. [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] She served as his host when he visited New England in 1976 and photos show them together on ski and camping trips. [ 91 ] Letters that he wrote to her were part of a solicitation of documents sold by Tymieniecka ‘s estate of the realm in 2008 to the National Library of Poland. [ 91 ] According to the BBC the library had initially kept the letters from populace scene, partially because of John Paul ‘s path to sainthood, but a library official announced in February 2016 the letters would be made populace. [ 91 ] [ 415 ] In February 2016 the BBC objective program Panorama reported that John Paul II had obviously had a ‘close relationship ‘ with the Polish-born philosopher. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] The pair exchanged personal letters over 30 years, and Stourton believes that Tymieniecka had confessed her love for Wojtyła. [ 89 ] [ 416 ] The Vatican described the documentary as “ more smoke than mirrors ”, and Tymieniecka denied being involved with John Paul II. [ 417 ] [ 418 ] Writers Carl Bernstein, the seasoned fact-finding journalist of the Watergate scandal, and Vatican expert Marco Politi, were the foremost journalists to talk to Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka in the 1990s about her importance in John Paul ‘s life. They interviewed her and dedicated 20 pages to her in their 1996 book His Holiness. [ 89 ] [ 281 ] [ 419 ] Bernstein and Politi flush asked her if she had ever developed any quixotic relationship with John Paul II, “ however unilateral it might have been. ” She responded, “ No, I never fell in love with the cardinal. How could I fall in sexual love with a middle-aged clergyman ? Besides, I ‘m a marry womanhood. ” [ 89 ] [ 281 ]
- ^Józef is pronounced [ˈjuzɛf] In isolation, is pronounced
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