About a month ago, longtime collector James Elliott contacted me via the internet and said that another collector in the fail kind collecting playing field, Pete Apple, had recommended that he contact me about a 1943-S Lincoln cent that he had with a known duplicate die obverse that he thought was besides a 1943/2-S overdate .
I think he is right, and my chap die variety show specialists Bill Fivaz, John Wexler and James Wiles agree with me, as does noted Lincoln penny specialist and writer David Lange. In our solid public opinion, the 1943/1942-S Lincoln penny is a true overdate. !
Though it is a know die diverseness, and has been for many years, it has only ever been recognized for its die duplicate. It is presently listed as such in the Cherrypickers ’ Guide by Bill Fivaz and the late J.T. Stanton : variety FS-101 ( 019.5 ) among the 1943-S Lincoln cents. The “ ( 019.5 ) ” phone number is an disused address number from earlier editions of the Guide, and is noted because it might be found on older TPG slab.
The misalignment of the designs between the 1942-dated hub and the 1943-dated hub pivots around a blemish on the left field obverse rim. Because of this swing, the mint shows alone trivial doubling on the word LIBERTY close to the pivot point, but some fairly strong doubling about due north and south at the base of the 1. There is exchangeable doubling under the exceed bend of the 9 and along the right side the leg of the 9. There is supernumerary metallic element below the sharp leave angle of the 4 that corresponds in scale to the doubling on the 1 and the 9. fairly rare early die state coins will besides show similar doubling on the nucleotide of the 4, but this feature apparently was either worn off or polished off of the fail early in its die life .
Elliott gets the credit for first suggesting that the double over die was actually an overdated die, always since he asked the interview back in July of 2020 in a private on-line forum, “ Lincoln Cent Errors and Varieties Only, ” on Facebook. As he pointed out, “ the extra metal to the upper right side of the 3 matches a 2. ” He provided an overlay to show how an underlying 2 could account for that extra metallic. As my colleagues and I have confirmed, this extra alloy does not telephone line up with any share of the 3 if the integral 1943 date were doubled in a north-south management, the same way that the 1 and the 9 and the 4 are doubled .
Creating image overlays
As seen in the attach overlie of a 1943 date and a 1942 date, created by die diverseness specialist James Wiles, owner of the Variety Vista web site, the high arched curve of the upper right field part of a 2 falls into the sphere to the correct of the top of the 3. Study the pictures of the overdate, and see that the blob of raised metallic to the right of the top of the 3 can not align with any part of a 3 that is doubled alone north and south .
Extra metallic element inside the peak of the 3 corresponds with the upper left curve of the 2, though its similarity to the upper berth left curvature of the 3 must be acknowledged. however, it does seem to match the fish of the upper left curl of the 2 more than that of the 3. There is extra metallic element below the kernel “ tine ” of the 3 that corresponds with the lower left bend of the 2, above the establish of the 2 ( which is not present ) .
If you are wondering why there is nothing else inside the bottom of the 3, attend at the images of normal 1942 and 1943 dates and see that the 2 is preferably short, the lapp altitude as the 4, while the 3 is much improbable, the same stature as the 9. A part of the 3 would be down there if the 3 were doubled, and there is nothing .
Why is the basal of the 2 miss and the upper right curve of the 2 weak ? This is a function of the hubbing procedure. Back then space dies were polished depressed to a identical shallow cone on the end to help the positivist steel hub transform the minus steel die more efficaciously. As the hub came into contact with the fail space, the center of the design would form first, and then spread outwards as the hub sank deeper and deeper into the fail .
finally the die became knead hardened from all this pressure, and therefore the hub stopped entering the conic die blank before the design impression had reached out all the direction to the flange of the die. The die now needed to be annealed, or heated in an oven to a certain temperature and allowed to cool lento nightlong. This softened the die steel. On the following work day it was put back under a design hub for another stamp. sometimes this process had to be repeated more than once, depending upon the diameter and stand-in of the design, the skill of the annealer, the skill of the hubber, etc.
If the second ( or third ) hub impression happened to be from a different hub with a different date, the result would be an overdate, “ IF ” the earlier date was sufficiently formed during the previous impression ( mho ). dual date hubbing could have happened near the end of any calendar year when the Engraving Department was placid producing dies for current custom from the current year ’ s hub while simultaneously producing dies from the following year ’ second hub, to have some fix for use on Jan. 2 .
The same thing happened with the 1909/8 Coronet gold duplicate eagle, the 1918/7-D indian Head 5-cent coin, the 1918/7-S Standing Liberty quarter dollar, the 1942/41 and 1942-D Winged Liberty Head dimes, and the 1943/42-P Jefferson 5-cent mint. It has been speculated that it is no coincidence that six of the seven advanced hubbed overdates occurred during wartime, when the Mint would be less inclined to scrap out a drop the ball but perfectly available die. It is besides possible that one or more of the skilled hubbers was off serving his area in the military .
Details of the diagnostics
On this especial die, the knocked out parts of the invention, such as IN GOD WE TRUST, were not formed by the first impression, and sol they could not be doubled by the second mental picture of the hub. Over in the word LIBERTY, the BERTY shows some very fiddling die doubling ( being airless to the pivot point ), while the letters LI show no doubling at all because they did not exist before the second hubbing. The amphetamine right wind of the 2 was incompletely formed by the beginning hubbing, while the directly base of the 2 was not formed because it lies closer to the rim .
Something similar can be seen on the 1943/42-P 5-cent coin, on which the top of the date is closest to the rim. It shows a firm base of the 2 from the original hubbing, but not the center or top of the 2. The consequence was a 3 over a overtone 2. By contrast, if only the bases of LIBERTY and IN GOD WE TRUST were formed by the 1942 hub impression, the letters were plainly finished normally by the subsequent 1943 impression .
respective examples of the 1943/1942-S Lincoln penny have been examined. only the earliest die states show doubling at the bottom of the good of the 4. Middle to later die states show some firm vertical die polish lines, as might have been caused by the manipulation of an emery stick to clean the die, in the field above the date .
The last discovery
The new discovery mirrors the discovery of another wartime overdate decades ago .
About 45 years ago, collector Del Romines came into my office at Coin World ’ south Collectors Clearinghouse with two banal 1943-P Jefferson 5-cent coins that he thought were 1943/2-P overdates. I thought that he might be right, so I took pictures of his coins, published them in Coin World, and asked if anybody had a higher mark exemplar that could verify the overdate. One workweek late a extremity of my local coin club, Bern Nagengast, cherrypicked a shrill Brilliant Uncirculated exercise at a coin show, and the 1943/42-P Jefferson 5-cent coin was confirmed. At the fourth dimension people were amazed that it had taken about 35 years for the overdate to be noticed.
The fresh penny die variety will continue to be listed in the Cherrypickers Guide as FS-101, though a raw description of it will be forthcoming. The description in the Numismatic Guaranty Co. ’ s Variety Plus archives will besides be amended .
I would like to thank James Elliott for having the wisdom of solomon to look at “ what everybody knows is therefore ” and ask questions. I would besides like to thank Bill Fivaz, David Lange, John Wexler and Dr. James Wiles for their invaluable contributions in adding yet another overdate to the canon of american die varieties. To those of you who were amazed when I published the 1943/42-P 5-cent coin some 35 years after it was first hit, all I can say 79 years after the 1943/1942-S cent was beginning assume is : “ KEEP look ! ! ! ”
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