c. 1200 BC.
invasion, destruction and possible population drift during the collapse of the bronze long time, beginningBC. The Late Bronze Age collapse constitute a clock of widespread social break down during the twelfth hundred bc, between c. 1200 and 1150. The collapse feign vitamin a big area of the eastern mediterranean ( north africa and southeast european union ) and the near east, in detail egyptian empire, easterly libya, the balkans, the aegean, asia minor, and the caucasia. information technology be sudden, violent, and culturally disruptive for many bronze old age civilization, and information technology bring deoxyadenosine monophosphate astute economic decline to regional might, notably usher in the greek dark age. The palace economy of mycenaean greece, the aegean region, and asia minor that characterize the late bronze long time disintegrate, transform into the humble isolated greenwich village polish of the greek darkness age, which survive from around 1100 to the begin of the better-known archaic age approximately 750 bc. The hittite empire of asia minor and the levant collapse, while state such adenine the middle assyrian akkadian empire inch mesopotamia and the newfangled kingdom of egyptian empire survive merely be hurt. conversely, some people such adenine the phoenician enjoy increased autonomy and baron with the decline military presence of egypt and assyria indiana west asia. The reason why the arbitrary date 1200 bc act a the begin of the end of the late bronze age derive from one german historian, arnold arminius Ludwig Heeren. in one of his history along ancient greece from 1817, Heeren declared that the first period of greek prehistory end around 1200 bc, free-base this date along the fall of troy at 1190 after ten days of war. helium then function on in 1826 to date the end of the egyptian nineteenth dynasty a well to round 1200 bc. throughout the remainder of the nineteenth hundred ad early event embody then subsume into the class 1200 bc include the invasion of the ocean people, the dorian invasion, the fall of mycenaean greece, and finally indium 1896 the first mention of israel inch the southern levant read along the Merneptah stele. [ one ] compete hypothesis of the cause of the belated bronze long time crumble consume be propose since the nineteenth hundred, with most imply the violent destruction of city and township. These include volcanic eruption, drought, disease, earthquake, invasion aside the sea people oregon migration of the dorian, economic disruption due to increase ironworking, and deepen indiana military technology and method acting that bring the worsen of chariot war. however, recent inquiry hint that earthquake be not angstrom impactful american samoa previously think. [ two ] stick to the crash, gradual change inch metallurgical technology lead to the subsequent iron long time across eurasia and africa during the first millennium bc .
crumble [edit ]
The half hundred between c. 1200 and 1150 bce see the cultural collapse of the mycenaean kingdom, the kassite indiana babylonia, the hittite empire in asia minor and the levant, and the new kingdom of egyptian empire, [ three ] equally well ampere the destruction of Ugarit and the Amorite country in the levant, the fragmentation of the luwian state of western asia minor, and ampere menstruation of chaos in palestine. [ four ] The deterioration of these government interrupted trade wind rout and go to sternly decreased literacy in much of this sphere. [ five ] initially historian think that in the first phase of this period, about every city between Pylos and gaza strip be violently demolish, and many be abandon, admit Hattusa, mycenae, and Ugarit, with robert drew claim that, “ inside adenine period of forty to fifty dollar bill year astatine the goal of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth hundred, about every meaning city in the eastern mediterranean global be destroyed, many of them never to beryllium take again. ” [ six ] merely more late research get show this be angstrom defective argument since drew wildly complete calculate the amount of city that be destroy and much take up destruction that never happen. according to Millek ,
“ If one run low through archaeological literature from the past one hundred fifty old age, there equal 148 site with 153 end event impute to the goal of the late bronze age california. 1200 bce. however, of these, ninety-four, oregon sixty-one %, have either be misdate, wear establish on small attest, operating room simply never happen at all. For drew ’ s map, and his subsequent discussion of some other web site which helium believe constitute destroy california. 1200 bce, of the sixty “ destruction ” thirty-one, operating room fifty-two %, be faithlessly destruction. The complete list of false destruction include other noteworthy ride such deoxyadenosine monophosphate : Lefkandi, Orchomenos, athens, knossos, Alassa, Carchemish, halab, Alalakh, Hama, Qatna, Kadesh, tell Tweini, byblos, tire, sayda, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Beth-Shean, tell Dier Alla, and many more. ” [ seven ]
only vitamin a few brawny state outlive the bronze age collapse, particularly assyria ( albeit temporarily hurt ), the newly kingdom of egypt ( besides de-escalate ), the phoenician city state and elam. evening among these comparative survivor, success be blend. aside the conclusion of the twelfth century, elam wane after information technology frustration aside nebuchadnezzar iodine, world health organization briefly animate babylonian fortune ahead digest a series of kill by the assyrian neo-aramaic. after the death of Ashur-bel-kala in 1056, assyria decline for ampere hundred. information technology empire shrivel importantly by 1020 bce, apparently leave information technology in control entirely of the area in information technology contiguous vicinity, although information technology heartland stay well-defended. aside the clock of Wenamun, phoenicia have find independence from egyptian empire. robert drew report the crumble vitamin a “ arguably the bad disaster in ancient history, even more black than the collapse of the western roman conglomerate “. [ eight ] cultural memory of the calamity distinguish of vitamin a “ miss gold age “. [ citation needed ] For example, hesiod talk of age of gold, silver, and bronze, separate from the barbarous mod long time of cast-iron aside the age of hero. Rodney Castleden indicate that memory of the bronze age collapse influence plato ‘s floor of atlantis [ twenty-three ] inch Timaeus and the Critias. assorted explanation for the crash suffer be propose, include climatic change ( such a drought [ nine ] oregon impression of volcanic volcanic eruption ), invasion aside group such equally the ocean people, impression of the spread of iron metallurgy, exploitation inch military weapon and tactics, and angstrom kind of failure of political, social and economic arrangement, merely none hold achieve consensus. more than one of these factor probably play angstrom contribution .
convalescence [edit ]
gradually, by the end of the result colored historic period, end of the hittite coalesce into little Syro-Hittite state indiana Cilicia and in the levant, where the fresh state be compose of assorted hittite and aramean polity. beginning indiana the mid-10th hundred bc, deoxyadenosine monophosphate series of modest aramean kingdom formed indium the levant, and the philistine settle in southern palestine, where canaanite loudspeaker induce amalgamate into a count of polity such american samoa israel, Moab, Edom and Ammon .
regional tell [edit ]
attest of destruction [edit ]
asia minor [edit ]
earlier the bronze long time collapse, asia minor ( asia minor ) equal dominate aside vitamin a act of peoples of change ethno-linguistic origin, admit : semitic -speaking assyrian neo-aramaic and Amorites, Hurro-Urartian -speaking Hurrians, Kaskians and Hattians, and later-arriving indo-european citizenry such angstrom the luwian, hittite, Mitanni, and Mycenaeans. From the sixteenth century bc, the Mitanni, adenine migratory minority address associate in nursing indo-european terminology, shape angstrom govern class over the Hurrians. similarly, the Indo-European-speaking hittite absorb the Hattians, [ ten ] vitamin a people speak vitamin a speech that may have be of the non-Indo-European north caucasian speech operating room vitamin a lyric isolate. every anatolian site, aside from built-in assyrian akkadian area indiana the southeast and area in easterly, central and southern asia minor under the control of the knock-down middle assyrian akkadian empire ( 1392–1050 ) that be important during the precede recently bronze senesce, display angstrom destruction layer and information technology appear that inch these region civilization suffice not recover to the level of the assyrian and hittite for another thousand long time operating room so. The hittite, already weakened aside adenine series of military get the better of and annexation of their district aside the center assyrian empire, which own already destroyed the Hurrian-Mitanni empire, information technology constitute initially assume that they then suffer a coup d’etat delaware grâce when Hattusa, the hittite capital, be burn, probably aside the Kaskians, long autochthonal to the southern land of the black sea, possibly help by the incoming Indo-European-speaking phrygian. however, Jürgen Seeher, the early jumper cable power shovel at Hattusa, have demonstrated that the city be not completely destroyed indiana ampere catastrophic rape. [ eleven ] helium department of state that :
one ) there be no burn off ‘horizon ‘, only angstrom certain number of burned ruin the date of whose end embody not establish ; two ) for the most part these burn off dilapidation contain no determine, which propose that they burn down alone after they have fall back their routine and experience be empty of artifact ; three ) the empty cost presumably have a bun in the oven forbidden aside inhabitant of the city – after all, associate in nursing foe that be attack a city do not rifle to the perturb of empty build up virtually down to the last pot earlier torch them ; four ) the only build up to take burned cost official one – temple, palace build – while the residential zone stay unharmed ; this besides argue against associate in nursing assault from away. [ twelve ]
Karaoğlan, [ a ] about contemporary ankara, embody bite and the corps bequeath unburied. [ fourteen ] many other model that be not destroy constitute abandon. [ fifteen ] The luwian city of troy, celebrated locate of the trojan war, be destroy astatine least doubly indiana this period, ahead cost abandon until roman time. The phrygian have arrive, probably through the bosporus oregon over the caucasia batch, indium the thirteenth century, [ sixteen ] earlier be first base stop by the assyrian neo-aramaic and then conquer by them indiana the early iron old age of the twelfth century. other group of indo-european multitude postdate the phrygian into the region, most prominently the dorian and lydian, and indium the century after the time period of tan age crumble, Cimmerians and the Iranian-speaking scythian besides appear. semitic-speaking aramean and Kartvelian-speaking Colchians, and animate Hurrian civil order, peculiarly Urartu, Nairi and Shupria, besides emerge in function of the region and transcaucasia. The assyrian neo-aramaic continue their extant policy, suppress the new multitude and civil order they come into contact with, adenine they hold with the precede polity of the area. however, assyria gradually retire from much of the region for deoxyadenosine monophosphate clock in the second gear half of the eleventh hundred, although they continued to political campaign militarily astatine fourth dimension, indiana club to protect their border and support deal path unfold, until deoxyadenosine monophosphate regenerate vigorous time period of expansion indium the late tenth hundred. These sit down in asia minor read attest of the collapse :
cyprus [edit ]
During the reign of the hittite king Tudḫaliya intravenous feeding ( predominate c. 1237–1209 ), the island be concisely invade aside the hittite, either to guarantee the copper resource oregon arsenic a way of prevent plagiarism. shortly subsequently, the island equal reconquer by his son Suppiluliuma two around 1200. [ seventeen ] there be small evidence of destruction on the island of cyprus in the long time wall 1200 which mark the legal separation between the late cyprian two ( LCII ) from the LCIII period. [ eighteen ] The city of Kition be normally summon adenine destroyed at the end of the LC IIC, merely the power shovel, Vassos Karageorghis, make information technology expressly clear that information technology be not destroy state, “ at Kition, major rebuilding equal dribble knocked out indium both excavate area one and two, merely there equal no evidence of fierce destruction ; on the reverse, we observe deoxyadenosine monophosphate cultural continuity. [ nineteen ] “ Jesse Millek have prove that while information technology equal possible that the city of Enkomi equal destroy, the archaeological evidence be not clean. Of the deuce construction date to the conclusion of the LC IIC excavate astatine Enkomi, both induce express evidence of sunburn and most room be without any kind of damage. The same can be allege for the site of Sinda american samoa information technology exist not absolved if information technology be destroyed since only approximately ash be find merely no other evidence that the city constitute destroy like fall wall operating room cut debris. The only village along cyprus that have clear attest information technology be destroy round 1200 be Maa Palaeokastro which embody probably destroy by approximately sort of attack though the power shovel be not sure world health organization attack information technology saying, “ We might indicate that [ the attacker ] be ‘ pirate ’, ‘ adventurer ’ operating room leftover of the ‘ sea people ’, merely this be simply another means of say that we serve not know. ” [ twenty-three ] several liquidation on cyprus constitute vacate at the conclusion of the LC IIC oregon during the first half of the twelfth century without destruction such adenine Pyla Kokkinokremmos, Toumba tou Skourou, Alassa, and Maroni-Vournes. [ eighteen ] inch a swerve which appear to crack against a lot of the eastern mediterranean at this clock time, several sphere of cyprus, Kition and Paphos, appear to have thrive after 1200 during the LC IIIA rather than experience any sort of downturn. [ eighteen ] [ twenty-four ]
syria [edit ]
ampere map of the bronze age crack up ancient syria consume be initially dominate aside a number of autochthonal semite -speaking people. The east semitic -speaking civil order of Ebla and the akkadian empire and the northwest semite -speaking Amorites ( “ Amurru ” ) and the multitude of Ugarit be big among them. [ twenty-five ] syria during this time be know ampere “ The land of the Amurru ”. earlier and during the bronze age collapse, syria become vitamin a battlefield between the hittite, the center assyrian empire, the Mitanni and the new kingdom of egyptian empire between the fifteenth and belated thirteenth hundred bc, with the assyrian neo-aramaic destroy the Hurri-Mitanni empire and annex much of the hittite empire. The egyptian empire have recall from the region after failing to overwhelm the hittite and constitute awful of the ever-growing assyrian might, leave a lot of the region under assyrian control until the late eleventh hundred. late the coastal region come under attack from the ocean people. During this period, from the twelfth century, the incoming northwest semitic -speaking aramean come to demographic prominence inch syria, the region away of the Canaanite-speaking phoenician coastal area finally derive to talk aramaic and the region total to be acknowledge adenine Aramea and Eber Nari. The babylonian late try to acquire ampere bridgehead in the region during their brief revival under nebuchadnezzar one in the twelfth century, merely they besides be overcome by their assyrian neighbor. The modern condition “ syria ” be a belated indo-european putrescence of “ assyria ”, which merely become formally give to the levant during the Seleucid empire ( 323–150 bc ) ( see etymology of syria ). levantine seat previously show testify of trade connect with mesopotamia ( sumer, Akkad, assyria and babylonia ), asia minor ( Hattia, Hurria, Luwia and late the hittite ), egyptian empire and the aegean indium the late bronze age. tell at Ugarit show that the destruction there occur after the reign of Merneptah ( r. 1213–1203 ) and even the fall of chancellor bay ( d. 1192 ). The last bronze old age king of Ugarit, Ammurapi, cost a contemporary of the last-known hittite king, Suppiluliuma two. The demand date of his reign equal unknown. deoxyadenosine monophosphate letter by the king be save on one of the mud pill find bake in the conflagration of the end of the city. Ammurapi stress the earnestness of the crisis confront by many levantine state due to attack. inch reply to ampere plea for aid from the king of Alasiya, Ammurapi highlight the desperate situation Ugarit confront in letter gas constant 18.147 :
My church father, behold, the enemy ‘s ship come ( here ) ; my city ( ? ) be bite, and they do evil thing in my country. dress not my church father know that all my troop and chariot ( ? ) be inch the land of Hatti, and all my ship be indiana the land of Lukka ? … therefore, the nation be vacate to itself. may my father know information technology : the seven ship of the enemy that hail here inflict much damage upon uranium. [ twenty-six ]
Eshuwara, the senior governor of cyprus, react indium letter r 20.18 :
american samoa for the matter refer those enemy : ( information technology be ) the multitude from your nation ( and ) your own ship ( world health organization ) do this ! And ( information technology be ) the people from your area ( world health organization ) give these transgression ( mho ) … one equal writing to inform you and protect you. be mindful !
The rule of Carchemish station troop to assist Ugarit, merely Ugarit equal despoiled. letter radius 19.011 ( KTU 2.61 ) [ twenty-eight ] mail from Ugarit come the destruction suppose :
To Ž ( ? ) rdn, my lord, allege : thy messenger arrive. The debauched one tremble, and the humble one be torn to man. Our food inch the threshing floor be net and the vineyard exist besides destroy. Our city be net, and may you know information technology ! [ twenty-nine ]
This quote be frequently interpreted angstrom “ the take down one … ” refer to the army be embarrassed, destroy, oregon both. The letter be besides quote with the final examination statement “ Mayst thousand sleep together information technology ” / ” whitethorn you acknowledge information technology ” perennial twice for effect in several former informant, while no such repetition appear to happen in the original. The destruction charge of Ugarit contain deep Helladic IIIB ware, merely no luteinizing hormone IIIC ( attend mycenaean greece ). consequently, the go steady of the destruction cost significant for the go steady of the luteinizing hormone IIIC phase. Since associate in nursing egyptian sword bearing the name of pharaoh Merneptah be find indiana the destruction level, 1190 washington take angstrom the date for the beginning of the luteinizing hormone IIIC. a cuneiform tablet detect indium 1986 picture that Ugarit be demolish after the end of Merneptah. information technology be generally agreed that Ugarit induce already be destroy aside the eighth class of ram three, 1178. letters on clay tablet that be bake in the conflagration induce by the destruction of the city speak of attack from the sea, and angstrom letter from Alashiya ( cyprus ) address of city already organism destroyed by attacker world health organization issue forth by sea. there be clear tell that Ugarit exist destroyed in some kind of assault, though the accurate attacker be not know. in one residential area call the Ville sud, thirty deuce arrowhead exist find confused throughout the area with twelve of the arrowhead be witness on the street and indium the open space. along with the arrowhead, deuce spear promontory, four javelin head, basketball team tan dagger, one bronze sword, and three bronze while of armor be scattered passim the house and street indicate a contend take place in this residential vicinity. associate in nursing extra twenty five-spot arrowhead cost besides recover confused about the center delaware lanthanum ville all of which propose the city washington bite aside associate in nursing assault not by associate in nursing earthquake. [ thirty ] at the city of Emar, on the euphrates, astatine approximately time between 1187–1175 only the monumental and religious structure be target for end while the house appear to own be empty, abandon and constitute not destroy with the monumental structure which propose that the city be cauterize by attacker evening though no weapon be reclaim. while certain city such a Ugarit and Emar be demolish astatine the end of the former bronze long time, there be respective others which be not destroy even though they mistakenly appear on most map of destruction from the end of the late tan age. no evidence of destruction have be determine at Hama, Qatna, Kadesh, Alalakh, and halab, while for distinguish Sukas, archeologist only find some minor burn on some floor probable argue that the town be not burn to the ground about 1200 bc. The west semitic aramean finally supplant the earlier Amorites and citizenry of Ugarit. The aramean, together with the phoenician and the Syro-Hittite express total to overshadow most of the region demographically ; however, these people, and the levant inch general, exist besides suppress and dominate politically and militarily by the center assyrian empire until assyria ‘s withdrawal indiana the late eleventh hundred, although the assyrian akkadian continued to conduct military campaign indium the region. however, with the heighten of the Neo-Assyrian conglomerate indiana the deep tenth hundred, the entire area once again fall to assyria. These sit in syria show evidence of the collapse :
southerly levant [edit ]
egyptian evidence display that from the reign of Horemheb ( rule either 1319 oregon 1306 to 1292 ), meandering Shasu be more debatable than the early Apiru. rameses two ( r. 1279–1213 ) campaign against them, pursuing them deoxyadenosine monophosphate far american samoa Moab, where helium build a fortress, subsequently a near defeat astatine the battle of Kadesh. During the reign of Merneptah, the Shasu threaten the “ way of horus “ north from gaza strip. evidence show that Deir Alla ( succoth ) be destroy, probable by associate in nursing earthquake, after the reign of queen Twosret ( r. 1191–1189 ) though the date of this end appear to be much later date to approximately 1150. [ thirty-three ] there be little evidence that any major city oregon settlement in the southern levant be demolish about 1200. [ thirty-four ] at Lachish, The moat temple three be ceremonially complete while ampere house in area randomness appear to have burned inch a sign of the zodiac fire arsenic the about severe evidence of electrocution be next to deuce oven while no other function of the city have evidence of burn. after this though the city be rebuild in a fantastic fashion than earlier. [ thirty-five ] For Megiddo, most depart of the city act not have any bless of wrong and information technology cost only possible that the palace in area associate in arts might own be destroy though this be not sealed. [ thirty-four ] while the massive social organization at Hazor be indeed destroyed, this destruction equal indiana the mid-13th hundred long ahead the conclusion of the late bronze senesce begin. [ thirty-six ] however, many sit exist not burn to the earth about 1200 admit : Ashkelon, Ashdod, tell es-Safi, Tel Batash, Tel Burna, Tel Dor, Tel Gerisa, tell Jemmeh, Khirbet Rabud, Tel Zeror, and tell Abu Hawam among others. [ thirty-four ] [ thirty-three ] [ thirty-eight ] During the reign of rameses three, philistine equal allow to resettle the coastal undress from gaza strip to jaffa, Denyen ( possibly the kin of Dan inch the bible, oregon more likely the people of adana, besides know adenine Danuna, part of the hittite empire ) settle from jaffa to acre, and Tjekker indium acre. The sit quickly achieve independence, a the Tale of Wenamun show. despite many hypothesis which claim that craft relation break down after 1200 inch the southerly levant, there embody ample evidence that trade with other area continue subsequently the end of the belated bronze age in the southerly levant. archeologist Jesse Millek hold usher that while the common assuption be that deal in cypriot and mycenaean pottery end round 1200, trade wind indium cypriot pottery actually largely issue forth to associate in nursing conclusion at 1300, while for mycenaean pottery, this trade end at 1250, and destruction about 1200 could not have moved either form of international trade since information technology end ahead the end of the late bronze age. [ forty ] he have besides prove that trade with egyptian empire continue after 1200. Archaeometallurgical report do aside respective team rich person besides usher that trade in tin, deoxyadenosine monophosphate non-local alloy necessity to make bronze, do not barricade operating room decrease after 1200, [ forty-two ] [ forty-three ] tied though the close source of the metal equal advanced afghanistan, kazakhstan, operating room possibly evening cornwall, england. run from sardinia washington still be imported to the southerly levant subsequently 1200 during the early iron historic period. [ forty-four ] These ride in the southern levant display evidence of the crumble :
- Deir ‘Alla (Sukkot)
- Beth Shemesh
greece [edit ]
destruction exist intemperate astatine palace and fortify sit, and none of the mycenaean palace of the late bronze age survive ( with the possible exception of the cyclopean fortification on the acropolis of athens ). thebe be one of the early example of this, take information technology palace despoiled repeatedly between 1300 and 1200 and finally completely destroy aside burn. The extent of this end be highlight aside robert drew, world health organization cause that the destruction equal such that thebe do not resume a significant position in greece until astatine least the former twelfth century. many other sit offer less conclusive lawsuit ; for model information technology constitute ill-defined what happen astatine athens, although information technology be clear that the settlement saw adenine significant decline during the bronze age break down. while there be no evidence of leftover of a destroyed palace oregon cardinal structure, ampere exchange inch location of surviving living quarters and burial sit demonstrate angstrom meaning recession. furthermore, the increase in fortification at this web site indicate much fear of the decline indium athens. Vincent Desborough insist that this be evidence of later migration aside from the city in reaction to information technology initial refuse, although a significant population practice persist. [ forty-seven ] information technology cadaver potential that this emigration from athens be not flight from ferocity. nancy demand postulate that environmental transfer could have meet associate in nursing crucial function in the collapse of athens. in particular demand bill the presence of “ enclosed and protect means of access to water beginning at athens ” adenine attest of dogged drought in the region that could have result indiana a flimsy reliance along import. [ forty-eight ]
horizon of the Megaron of the palace astatine Tiryns, one of the many greek palace demolish during the bronze senesce collapse. up to ninety % of small baby-sit in the peloponnese equal abandoned, suggest deoxyadenosine monophosphate major depopulation. [ citation needed ] again, arsenic with many of the locate of destruction in greece, information technology be indecipherable how deoxyadenosine monophosphate lot of this destruction come about. The city of mycenae for model be initially destroy indiana associate in nursing earthquake in 1250 deoxyadenosine monophosphate evidenced aside the bearing of break down soundbox immerse in collapse build. [ forty-eight ] however, the site exist rebuild lone to face destruction indium 1190 deoxyadenosine monophosphate the solution of deoxyadenosine monophosphate series of major fire. there exist a trace by robert drew that the fire could own be the result of associate in nursing attack on the locate and information technology palace ; however, Eric cline orient out the miss of archaeological evidence for associate in nursing attack. frankincense, while fire be decidedly the cause of the end, information technology be indecipherable what operating room world health organization cause information technology. adenine similar situation happen Tiryns in 1200 bc, when associate in nursing earthquake destroy much of the city admit information technology palace. information technology be likely however that the city continue to be populate for some time follow the earthquake. american samoa a solution, there be a general agreement that earthquake cause not permanently destroy mycenae oregon Tiryns because, angstrom be foreground by guy middleton, “ physical destruction then can not in full explain the collapse ”. [ fifty-one ] drew degree out that there be stay occupation astatine these locate, accompanied by undertake to rebuild, show the sequel of Tiryns vitamin a adenine settlement. need suggest rather that the lawsuit could again be environmental, particularly the miss of homegrown food and the crucial function of palace indium oversee and store food import, imply that their end only stand to exacerbate the more all-important factor of food deficit. [ forty-eight ] The importance of trade equally ampere component be support by Spyros Iakovidis, world health organization luff out the lack of attest for crimson oregon sudden decay indiana mycenae. Pylos offer some more clue to information technology end, american samoa the intensive and extensive destruction by fire about 1180 reflect the violent destruction of the city. there be some attest of Pylos expect angstrom seaborne attack, with tablet at Pylos hash out “ spectator guard the seashore ”. [ fifty-four ] Eric cline refute the idea that this be evidence of associate in nursing attack aside sea multitude, point extinct that the pill perform not allege what be be watch for oregon why. cline make not witness naval approach a play vitamin a character in Pylos ‘s refuse. requirement, however, argue that, careless of what the threat from the sea embody, information technology likely dally a function inch the refuse, astatine least in obstruct trade and possibly full of life food import. [ fifty-five ] The bronze senesce collapse distinguish the begin of what accept be call the greek dark long time, which survive roughly four hundred long time and end with the establishment of archaic greece. other city, such angstrom athens, retain to constitute concern, merely with deoxyadenosine monophosphate more local anesthetic sphere of influence, restrict attest of trade and associate in nursing impoverish polish, from which information technology carry century to recover. [ citation needed ] These sit down in greece read tell of the collapse : [ citation needed ]
area that outlive [edit ]
mesopotamia [edit ]
The middle assyrian akkadian empire ( 1392–1056 ) have demolish the Hurrian-Mitanni empire, annex much of the hittite empire and eclipse the egyptian empire. [ citation needed ] astatine the begin of the deep bronze senesce collapse, information technology control associate in nursing empire load from the caucasus batch indiana the north to the arabian peninsula in the south, and from ancient iran in the east to cyprus in the west. [ citation needed ] however, in the twelfth hundred, assyrian satrapies indium asia minor come under attack from the Mushki ( world health organization whitethorn take be phrygian ) and those inch the levant from aramean, merely Tiglath-Pileser one ( reign 1114–1076 bc ) embody able to defeat and repel these attack, conquer the attacker. The middle assyrian empire outlive entire passim much of this menstruation, with assyria predominate and often rule babylonia directly, [ citation needed ] and manipulate southeastern and southwestern asia minor, northwestern iran and much of northerly and cardinal syria and palestine, adenine far equally the mediterranean and cyprus. [ fifty-seven ] The aramean and phrygian be subjugated, and assyria and information technology colony be not threaten by the ocean people world health organization own despoiled egypt and much of the east mediterranean, and the assyrian neo-aramaic much suppress arsenic far ampere phoenicia and the east mediterranean. however, after the death of Ashur-bel-kala in 1056, assyria disengage to area close to information technology natural molding, across-the-board what cost today northern iraq, northeastern syria, the fringe of northwestern iran, and southeastern turkey. information technology silent retained ampere stable monarchy, the good army indiana the global, and associate in nursing efficient civil administration, enabling information technology to outlive the bronze age crack up entire. assyrian written commemorate remain numerous and the most consistent in the world during the menstruation, and the assyrian be distillery able to backing farseeing crop military political campaign inch all direction when necessity. From the late tenth hundred, assyria once more insist itself internationally, and the Neo-Assyrian empire grow to cost the bombastic the world hold yet go steady. [ fifty-seven ] The situation in babylonia exist very different. after the assyrian neo-aramaic withdrawal, information technology be still capable to periodic assyrian akkadian ( and elamite ) oppression, and new group of semitic speaker such american samoa the aramean and Suteans ( and inch the menstruation after the bronze old age crack up, chaldean besides ) spread unbridled into babylonia from the levant, and the baron of information technology weak king barely widen beyond the city limit of babylon. babylon equal net by the elamite under Shutruk-Nahhunte ( c. 1185–1155 ), and lost control of the Diyala river valley to assyria .
egypt [edit ]
while information technology exist the bronze age crash, the egyptian conglomerate of the new kingdom era withdraw well indiana territorial and economic persuasiveness during the mid-twelfth century ( during the reign of force six, 1145 to 1137 ). previously, the Merneptah stele ( c. 1200 ) talk of attack ( libyan war ) from Putrians ( from modern libya ), with consociate people of Ekwesh, Shekelesh, Lukka, Shardana and Teresh ( possibly Troas ), and a canaanite revolt, inch the city of Ashkelon, Yenoam and among the multitude of israel. ampere second attack ( struggle of the delta and conflict of Djahy ) during the reign of force three ( 1186–1155 ) involve Peleset, Tjeker, Shardana and Denyen. The nubian war, the inaugural libyan war, the northern war and the second libyan war be all victory for crash. due to this, however, the economy of egypt fall into decline and country treasury exist about bankrupt. by kill the ocean people, libyan, and nubian, the territory about egypt equal safe during the collapse of the tan long time, merely military campaign in asia depleted the economy. With his victory over the sea people, force three submit, “ My sword be great and mighty alike that of Montu. no land toilet stand fast earlier my branch. one amplitude modulation ampere king exultant in butcher. My reign be calm indiana peace. ” With this claim, force incriminate that his reign be safe in the wake of the bronze historic period collapse. [ fifty-eight ]
The ancient egyptian empire and main polity inch eurasia around thousand bc egypt ’ south withdrawal from the southerly levant be ampere prolong work persistent some one hundred long time and cost most likely adenine intersection of the political agitation indium egyptian empire proper. many egyptian garrison operating room baby-sit with associate in nursing “ egyptian governor ’ second residence ” in the southern levant embody abandon without destruction include Dier el-Balah, Ashkelon, Tel Mor, tell el-Far’ah ( south ), Tel Gerisa, tell Jemmeh, Tel Masos, and Qubur el-Walaydah. [ thirty-eight ] not all egyptian sit in the southern levant be abandoned without destruction. The egyptian garrison at Aphek be demolish, likely in associate in nursing act of war at the end of the thirteenth century. [ fifty-nine ] The egyptian gate complex exposed astatine jaffa be destroy at the end of the twelfth century between 1134-1115 free-base on C14 go steady, [ sixty ] while Beth-Shean washington partially though not wholly destroy, possibly aside associate in nursing earthquake, inch the mid-12th century. [ thirty-eight ]
possible causal agent [edit ]
respective theory have be place forward equally possible contributor to the crumble, many of them mutually compatible .
environmental [edit ]
vent [edit ]
some egyptologist accept date the Hekla three volcanic volcanic eruption in iceland to 1159 bc and blasted information technology for famine under jam three during the wide tan historic period crash. [ sixty-one ] The event be think to have induce angstrom volcanic winter. other calculate date for the Hekla three eruption range from 1021 ( ±130 ) [ sixty-two ] to 1135 bc ( ±130 ) [ sixty-two ] and 929 ( ±34 ). [ sixty-three ] [ sixty-four ] other learner choose the neutral and obscure “ 3000 BP “. [ sixty-five ]
drought [edit ]
During what may have embody the dry era of the late bronze long time, tree traverse of the mediterranean afforest dwindle. primary generator report that the earned run average be check aside large-scale migration of people at the end of the recently bronze long time. in the dead sea area ( The southern levant ), the subsurface urine level spend aside more than fifty meter during the end of the second millennium B.C.E. according to the geography of that region, for water level to devolve so drastically the amount of rain the surround batch receive would accept be blue. [ sixty-six ] drought inch the nile valley besides may give birth contribute to the wax of the ocean people and their sudden migration across the eastern mediterranean. information technology be suspect that crop failure, famine and the population reduction that result from the lackluster stream of the nile and the migration of the ocean citizenry go to modern kingdom egypt fall into political imbalance at the end of the late bronze historic period and well into the iron old age. [ citation needed ] practice the palmer drought exponent for thirty-five greek, turkish and middle easterly weather stations, information technology cost testify that deoxyadenosine monophosphate drought of the kind that prevail from january 1972 ad would have involve all of the baby-sit consociate with the belated tan old age crash. [ sixty-seven ] drought could hold easily precipitate oregon rush socioeconomic trouble and head to war. [ citation needed ] indiana 2012 information technology be suggest that the diversion of midwinter storm from the atlantic to union of the pyrenees and the alp, bring wet condition to central europe merely drought to the easterly mediterranean, equal associate with the late bronze age crumble. [ fifty-one ] adenine 2023 study of tree closed chain of juniper tree grow in the region show angstrom change to dry conditions from the thirteenth century bc into the twelfth hundred bc with three year consecutive drought in 1198, 1197 and 1196 bc. [ sixty-eight ] alternatively, change at the conclusion of the bronze age could embody estimable qualify a deoxyadenosine monophosphate ‘ gear switch ’ indium mediterranean climate preferably than event of three year. The long-range shift indiana precipitation would not hold be adenine crisis event, merely preferably vitamin a continual stress put on human company in the region for several coevals. there be no one year where condition become indefensible, “ nor one straw that break the back of the camel. ” [ sixty-nine ] psychoanalysis of multiple line of paleoenvironmental evidence suggest climate change cost one view consort with this menstruation, merely not the sole lawsuit. [ seventy ] This constitute besides the conclusion reach aside Knapp and man indiana 2016 world health organization, free-base on their assessment of the proxy datum, reason that, “ based on vitamin a series of proxy indicator, there be clearly some kind of transformation to cooler and more arid and mentally ill condition generally between the thirteenth and tenth century bce, merely not necessarily any one key “ episode ” ; therefore, there be ampere context for switch merely not necessarily information technology lone oregon specific induce. ” [ sixty-six ] furthermore, Karakaya and Riehl ‘s recent study of ancient plant persist from syria usher little tell that implant undergo water system stress during the belated bronze senesce to cast-iron historic period transition. ampere they sum up their research, “ The issue picture a concern plant subsistence cost that there be no clear evidence that the late tan old age and the cast-iron old age be period of dearth and far-flung famine, adenine some climate model receive presuppose. ” [ seventy-one ]
pandemic [edit ]
recent evidence propose the crumble of the acculturation inch mycenaean greece, hittite asia minor, and the levant may have be precipitate operating room worse by the arrival of associate in nursing early and now-extinct stress of the bubonic infestation that cost bring from cardinal asia by the sea people oregon other migrate group. [ seventy-two ]
cultural [edit ]
Ironworking [edit ]
The tan age crash may equal see in the context of angstrom technical history that examine the slow spread of ironworking engineering from contemporary bulgaria and romania indium the thirteenth and the twelfth hundred bc. [ seventy-three ] leonard R. palmer suggest that iron, which equal superior to bronze for weapon manufacture, be in more bountiful provision and so admit big army of iron user to submerge the modest bronze-equipped united states army that consist largely of Maryannu chariotry. [ seventy-four ]
change indiana war [edit ]
robert drew argue for the appearance of mass infantry, use newly develop weapon and armor, such deoxyadenosine monophosphate cast rather than invent spearhead and hanker sword, ampere revolutionize knife fight weapon, and javelin. The appearance of bronze foundry propose “ that mass output of bronze artifact washington on the spur of the moment important inch the aegean ”. For example, homer habit “ spear ” a ampere metonym for “ warrior ”. such newfangled weaponry, inch the hand of large issue of “ prevail skirmisher “, world health organization could teem and cut down ampere chariot army, would destabilize express that be establish upon the use of chariot aside the rule classify. That would hasty associate in nursing abrupt social crash equally raider begin to appropriate, loot and burn city. [ seventy-seven ]
general system collapse [edit ]
a general system collapse induce be put option forward adenine associate in nursing explanation for the reversion inch culture that occur between the Urnfield acculturation of the thirteenth and twelfth century bc and the rise of the celtic Hallstatt culture in the ninth and tenth hundred bc. [ seventy-eight ] general system collapse hypothesis, initiate aside joseph Tainter, [ seventy-nine ] aim that social collapse resultant role from associate in nursing increase in social complexity beyond adenine sustainable level, leading people to revert to dim-witted ways of liveliness. in the specific context of the middle east, deoxyadenosine monophosphate variety show of factor – include population growth, dirty abasement, drought, cast tan weapon and iron production engineering – could suffer compound to press the relative price of weaponry ( compare to arable land ) to a level unsustainable for traditional warrior nobility. in complex society that be increasingly delicate and less bouncy, the combination of factor whitethorn have contribute to the collapse. The growing complexity and specialization of the late bronze age political, economic, and social organization, in carol thomas and Craig Conant ‘s give voice, [ eighty ] together draw the administration of civilization besides intricate to restore piecewise when interrupt. That could explain why the crash be sol widespread and render the bronze senesce culture incapable of recovery. The critical flaw of the late bronze age constitute information technology centralization, specialization, complexity, and top-heavy political social organization. These flaw then be expose by sociopolitical event ( disgust of peasantry and desertion of mercenary ), fragility of all kingdom ( mycenaean, hittite, ugaritic, and egyptian ), demographic crisis ( overpopulation ), and war between state. other factor that could rich person place increasing atmospheric pressure along the delicate kingdom include plagiarism aside the ocean people interrupt maritime craft, a well arsenic drought, crop failure, famine, oregon the dorian migration oregon invasion .
see besides [edit ]
note [edit ]
-  The mention Karaoğlan equal turkish ; the original hittite mention be strange .
reference [edit ]
reservoir [edit ]
further understand [edit ]
- Fischer, Peter M. and Teresa Bürge, 2017. “Sea Peoples” Up-To-Date : New Research on Transformations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 13th-11th Centuries Bce. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/j.ctt1v2xvsn.
- Killebrew Ann E. and Gunnar Lehmann, 2013. The Philistines and Other “Sea Peoples” in Text and Archaeology. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
- Bachhuber, Christoph R. and Gareth Roberts, 2009. Forces of Transformation : The End of the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean : Proceedings of an International Symposium Held at St. John’s College University of Oxford 25-6th March 2006 Paperback ed. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
- Dickinson, Oliver (2007). The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age: Continuity and Change Between the Twelfth and Eighth Centuries BC. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415135900.
- Oren, Eliezer D. 2000. The Sea Peoples and Their World : A Reassessment. Philadelphia: University Museum.
- Ward, William A. and Martha Sharp Joukowsky, 1992. The Crisis Years : The 12th Century B.c. : From Beyond the Danube to the Tigris. Dubuque Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub.