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Japan – Wikipedia

Island country in East Asia

Japan ( japanese : 日本, Nippon or Nihon, [ niobium 1 ] and formally 日本国 [ niobium 2 ] ) is an island nation in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a region of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers ( 145,937 sq security service ) ; the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu ( the “ mainland ” ), Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation ‘s capital and largest city ; other major cities include Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.

Japan is the eleventh most populous area in the world, adenine well as one of the most dumbly populate and urbanized. About three-fourths of the country ‘s terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 125.5 million on narrow coastal plains. Japan is divided into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, with more than 37.4 million residents. Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic time period ( 30,000 BC ), though the beginning written mention of the archipelago appears in a chinese chronicle ( the Book of Han ) finished in the second hundred AD. Between the 4th and 9th centuries, the kingdoms of Japan became incorporate under an emperor and the imperial woo based in Heian-kyō. Beginning in the twelfth hundred, political world power was held by a series of military dictators ( shōgun ) and feudal lords ( daimyō ) and enforced by a class of warrior nobility ( samurai ). After a century-long period of civil war, the nation was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa dictatorship, which enacted an isolationist foreign policy. In 1854, a United States fleet forced Japan to open barter to the West, which led to the end of the dictatorship and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-modeled united states constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. Amidst a rise in militarism and abroad colonization, Japan invaded China in 1937 and entered World War II as an Axis office in 1941. After suffering kill in the Pacific War and two nuclear bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new fundamental law. Under the 1947 fundamental law, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary built-in monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet. Japan is a big office and a extremity of numerous external organizations, including the United Nations ( since 1956 ), OECD, G20 and Group of Seven. Although it has renounced its correct to declare war, the area maintains self-defense Forces that rank as one of the universe ‘s potent militaries. After World War II, Japan experienced record growth in an economic miracle, becoming the second-largest economy in the universe by 1972 but has stagnated since 1995 in what is referred to as the Lost Decades. As of 2021, the state ‘s economy is the third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by PPP. Ranked “ very high gear ” on the Human Development Index, Japan has one of the universe ‘s highest life sentence expectancies, though it is experiencing a decline in population. A ball-shaped drawing card in the automotive, robotics and electronics industries, Japan has made significant contributions to science and technology. The acculturation of Japan is well known around the world, including its artwork, cuisine, music, and democratic culture, which encompasses big comedian, animation and video game industries .


Japanese name
Kanji 日本国
Hiragana にっぽんこく
Katakana ニッポンコク
Kyūjitai 日本國

The name for Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji 日本 and is pronounced Nippon or Nihon. [ 9 ] Before 日本 was adopted in the early eighth hundred, the state was known in China as Wa ( 倭, changed in Japan around 757 to 和 ) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato. [ 10 ] Nippon, the original Sino-Japanese interpretation of the characters, is favored for official uses, including on banknotes and postage stamps. [ 9 ] Nihon is typically used in everyday address and reflects shifts in japanese phonology during the Edo period. [ 10 ] The characters 日本 mean “ sun lineage ”, [ 9 ] which is the source of the popular Western name “ Land of the Rising Sun ”. [ 11 ] The name “ Japan ” is based on chinese pronunciations of 日本 and was introduced to european languages through early on trade. In the thirteenth hundred, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the characters 日本國 as Cipangu. [ 12 ] The old Malay name for Japan, Japang or Japun, was borrowed from a southerly coastal chinese dialect and encountered by portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the discussion to Europe in the early sixteenth century. [ 13 ] The first version of the name in English appears in a koran published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 portuguese letter. [ 14 ] [ 15 ]


Prehistoric to classical history

A paleolithic age acculturation from around 30,000 BC constitutes the beginning known inhabitancy of the islands of Japan. [ 16 ] This was followed from around 14,500 BC ( the start of the Jōmon time period ) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by hell harp and vestigial department of agriculture. [ 17 ] Clay vessels from the menstruation are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery. [ 18 ] From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon ; [ 19 ] the Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices including wet-rice farm, [ 20 ] a newly style of pottery, [ 21 ] and metallurgy from China and Korea. [ 22 ] According to legend, Emperor Jimmu ( grandson of Amaterasu ) founded a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a continuous imperial line. [ 23 ] Japan first appears in written history in the chinese Book of Han, completed in 111 AD. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje ( a Korean kingdom ) in 552, but the growth of japanese Buddhism was chiefly influenced by China. [ 24 ] Despite early resistor, Buddhism was promoted by the rule class, including figures like Prince Shōtoku, and gained far-flung adoption beginning in the Asuka period ( 592–710 ). [ 25 ] The far-reaching Taika Reforms in 645 nationalize all nation in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a family register as the basis for a raw system of tax income. [ 26 ] The Jinshin War of 672, a bally conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for further administrative reforms. [ 27 ] These reforms culminated with the announcement of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the structure of the central and subordinate local governments. [ 26 ] These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a organization of Chinese-style centralized government that remained in rate for half a millennium. [ 27 ] The Nara period ( 710–784 ) marked the egress of a japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō ( modern Nara ). The period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary acculturation with the completion of the Kojiki ( 712 ) and Nihon Shoki ( 720 ), ampere well as the development of Buddhist-inspired artwork and computer architecture. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] A smallpox epidemic in 735–737 is believed to have killed american samoa much as one-third of Japan ‘s population. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital, settling on Heian-kyō ( contemporary Kyoto ) in 794. [ 29 ] This marked the beginning of the Heian menstruation ( 794–1185 ), during which a distinctly autochthonal japanese culture emerged. Murasaki Shikibu ‘s The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan ‘s national anthem “Kimigayo” were written during this time. [ 31 ]

Feudal era

Japan ‘s feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. [ 32 ] In 1185, following the get the better of of the Taira kin in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military politics at Kamakura. [ 33 ] After Yoritomo ‘s death, the Hōjō kin came to baron as regents for the shōgun. [ 29 ] The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura time period ( 1185–1333 ) and became democratic among the samurai course. [ 34 ] The Kamakura dictatorship repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 but was finally overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. [ 29 ] Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period ( 1336–1573 ). [ 35 ] The succeeding Ashikaga dictatorship failed to control the feudal warlords ( daimyō ) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku menstruation ( “ Warring States ” ). [ 36 ] During the sixteenth century, portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first clock time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. [ 29 ] [ 37 ] Oda Nobunaga used European engineering and firearms to conquer many other daimyō ; [ 38 ] his consolidation of might began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period. [ 39 ] After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597. [ 29 ] Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi ‘s son Toyotomi Hideyori and used his put to gain political and military subscribe. [ 40 ] When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa dictatorship at Edo ( modern Tokyo ). [ 41 ] The dictatorship enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of impart to control the autonomous daimyō, [ 42 ] and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ( “ closed state ” ) policy that spanned the two and a one-half centuries of tenuous political one known as the Edo period ( 1603–1868 ). [ 41 ] [ 43 ] Modern Japan ‘s economic growth began in this time period, resulting in roads and water transportation routes, a well as fiscal instruments such as futures contracts, bank and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers. [ 44 ] The study of western sciences ( rangaku ) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki. [ 41 ] The Edo period gave rise to kokugaku ( “ national studies ” ), the study of Japan by the Japanese. [ 45 ]

Modern earned run average

In 1854, Commodore Matthew C. Perry and the “ Black Ships “ of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside earth with the Convention of Kanagawa. [ 41 ] Subsequent like treaties with early western countries brought economic and political crises. [ 41 ] The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the administration of a centralized state nominally unified under the emperor ( the Meiji Restoration ). [ 46 ] Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. [ 47 ] During the Meiji menstruation ( 1868–1912 ), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most develop nation in Asia and as an industrialize universe baron that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of determine. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] After victories in the first Sino-Japanese War ( 1894–1895 ) and the Russo-Japanese War ( 1904–1905 ), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea and the southerly half of Sakhalin. [ 51 ] [ 47 ] The japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant chemise to urbanization. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] The early twentieth century saw a menstruation of Taishō majority rule ( 1912–1926 ) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and mobilization. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] World War I allowed Japan, which joined the side of the triumphant Allies, to capture german possessions in the Pacific and in China. [ 55 ] The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of laws against political dissent, and a series of try coups. [ 53 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] This serve accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a total of root patriot groups that shared a hostility to big democracy and a commitment to expansion in Asia. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria ; following international condemnation of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years late. [ 58 ] In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany ; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers. [ 53 ]
Japan ‘s imperial ambitions ended on September 2, 1945, with the area ‘s capitulation to the Allies. The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the second Sino-Japanese War ( 1937–1945 ). [ 59 ] In 1940, the Empire invaded french Indochina, after which the United States placed an anoint embargo on Japan. [ 53 ] [ 60 ] On December 7–8, 1941, japanese forces carried out storm attacks on Pearl Harbor, vitamin a well as on british forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong, among others, beginning World War II in the Pacific. [ 61 ] Throughout areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against local inhabitants, with many forced into intimate slavery. [ 62 ] After Allied victories during the adjacent four years, which culminated in the soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an categoric surrender. [ 63 ] The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives. [ 53 ] The Allies ( led by the United States ) repatriated millions of japanese settlers from their early colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the japanese empire and its charm over the territories it conquered. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] The Allies convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute japanese leaders for war crimes. [ 65 ] In 1947, Japan adopted a raw constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. [ 65 ] The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952, [ 66 ] and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. [ 65 ] A period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the universe ; [ 65 ] this ended in the mid-1990s after the toss off of an asset price bubble, beginning the “ Lost Decade ”. [ 67 ] On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its recorded history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear catastrophe. [ 68 ] On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became Emperor, beginning the Reiwa era. [ 69 ]


Japan comprises 6,852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. It stretches over 3,000 km ( 1,900 mi ) northeast–southwest from the Sea of Okhotsk to the East China Sea. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] The country ‘s five main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa. [ 72 ] The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. The Nanpō Islands are south and east of the independent islands of Japan. together they are much known as the japanese archipelago. [ 73 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s territory is 377,975.24 km2 ( 145,937.06 sq nautical mile ). [ 1 ] Japan has the sixth-longest coastline in the global at 29,751 kilometer ( 18,486 mi ). Because of its far-flung outlying islands, Japan has the one-eighth largest single Economic zone in the earth, covering 4,470,000 km2 ( 1,730,000 sq nautical mile ). [ 74 ] [ 75 ] The japanese archipelago is 66.4 % forests, 12.8 % agrarian and 4.8 % residential ( 2002 ). [ 76 ] The primarily rugged and mountainous terrain is restricted for habitation. [ 77 ] Thus the habitable zones, chiefly in the coastal areas, have identical high population densities : Japan is the fortieth most densely populated area. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] Honshu has the highest population concentration at 450 persons/km2 ( 1,200/sq mi ) as of 2010, while Hokkaido has the lowest density of 64.5 persons/km2 as of 2016. [ 80 ] As of 2014, approximately 0.5 % of Japan ‘s entire area is reclaimed land ( umetatechi ). [ 81 ] Lake Biwa is an ancient lake and the state ‘s largest fresh water lake. [ 82 ] Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes, tsunami and volcanic eruptions because of its location along the Pacific Ring of Fire. [ 83 ] It has the 17th highest natural calamity risk as measured in the 2016 World Risk Index. [ 84 ] Japan has 111 active volcanoes. [ 85 ] Destructive earthquakes, much resulting in tsunami, occur respective times each century ; [ 86 ] the 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed over 140,000 people. [ 87 ] More late major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, which triggered a big tsunami. [ 68 ]


The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate but varies greatly from north to south. The northernmost region, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. haste is not heavy, but the islands normally develop deep snowbanks in the winter. [ 88 ] In the Sea of Japan area on Honshu ‘s west coast, northwest winter winds bring intemperate snow during winter. In the summer, the region sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the fohn. [ 89 ] The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with bombastic temperature differences between summer and winter. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal worker winds, bringing meek weather year-round. [ 88 ] The Pacific slide features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with episodic snow and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal scent. The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropical climate, with strong winters and hot summers. precipitation is very grave, particularly during the showery season. [ 88 ] The independent showery temper begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north. In deep summer and early fall, typhoons frequently bring heavy rain. [ 90 ] According to the Environment Ministry, dense rain and increasing temperatures have caused problems in the agricultural diligence and elsewhere. [ 91 ] The highest temperature ever measured in Japan, 41.1 °C ( 106.0 °F ), was recorded on July 23, 2018, [ 92 ] and repeated on August 17, 2020. [ 93 ]


Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical damp broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and blend forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northerly islands. [ 94 ] Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife as of 2019, [ 95 ] including the embrown hold, the japanese macaque, the japanese raccoon frank, the small japanese field mouse, and the japanese colossus salamander. [ 96 ] A bombastic network of national parks has been established to protect significant areas of flora and fauna vitamin a well as 52 Ramsar wetland sites. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding lifelike value. [ 99 ]


In the menstruation of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the politics and industrial corporations ; as a result, environmental befoulment was far-flung in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern, the government introduced environmental auspices laws in 1970. [ 100 ] The petroleum crisis in 1973 besides encouraged the effective use of energy because of Japan ‘s miss of natural resources. [ 101 ] Japan ranks 20th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation ‘s committedness to environmental sustainability. [ 102 ] Japan is the populace ‘s fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. [ 91 ] As the host and signer of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change. [ 103 ] In 2020 the politics of Japan announced a target of carbon-neutrality by 2050. [ 104 ] Environmental issues include urban air travel pollution ( NOx, suspended particulate topic, and toxics ), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and external co-operation for conservation. [ 105 ]


Japan is a one state and constitutional monarchy in which the ability of the Emperor is limited to a ceremony character. [ 106 ] Executive office is alternatively wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet, whose reign is vested in the japanese people. [ 107 ] Naruhito is the Emperor of Japan, having succeeded his don Akihito upon his accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne in 2019. [ 106 ]
Japan ‘s legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral fantan. [ 106 ] It consists of a lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by democratic vote every four years or when dissolved, and an upper House of Councillors with 245 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. [ 108 ] There is universal right to vote for adults over 18 years of old age, [ 109 ] with a secret ballot for all elected offices. [ 107 ] The prime minister as the promontory of government has the office to appoint and dismiss Ministers of State, and is appointed by the emperor after being designated from among the members of the Diet. [ 108 ] Fumio Kishida is Japan ‘s prime minister ; he took office after winning the 2021 Liberal Democratic Party leadership election. [ 110 ] historically influenced by chinese jurisprudence, the japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo menstruation through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. [ 111 ] Since the recently nineteenth century, the discriminative arrangement has been largely based on the civil police of Europe, notably Germany. In 1896, Japan established a civil code based on the german Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, which remains in effect with post–World War II modifications. [ 112 ] The Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is the oldest unamended fundamental law in the world. [ 113 ] Statutory law originates in the legislature, and the constitution requires that the emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the ability to oppose legislation. The main torso of japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. [ 111 ] Japan ‘s court system is divided into four basic tiers : the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts. [ 114 ]

administrative divisions

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, each oversee by an elected governor and legislature. [ 106 ] In the stick to table, the prefectures are grouped by region : [ 115 ]

Prefectures of Japan with colored regions Hokkaido
1. hokkaido
2. Aomori
3. Iwate
4. Miyagi
5. Akita
6. Yamagata
7. Fukushima
8. Ibaraki
9. Tochigi
10. Gunma
11. Saitama
12. Chiba
13. Tokyo
14. Kanagawa
15. Niigata
16. Toyama
17. Ishikawa
18. Fukui
19. Yamanashi
20. Nagano
21. Gifu
22. Shizuoka
23. Aichi
24. Mie
25. Shiga
26. Kyoto
27. Osaka
28. Hyōgo
29. Nara
30. Wakayama
31. Tottori
32. Shimane
33. Okayama
34. Hiroshima
35. Yamaguchi
36. Tokushima
37. Kagawa
38. Ehime
39. Kōchi
40. Fukuoka
41. Saga
42. Nagasaki
43. Kumamoto
44. Ōita

45. Miyazaki
46. Kagoshima
47. okinawa

foreign relations

Japan is a penis of both the G7 and the G20 A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan is one of the G4 nations seeking reform of the Security Council. [ 116 ] Japan is a member of the G7, APEC, and “ ASEAN Plus Three “, and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. [ 117 ] It is the worldly concern ‘s fifth largest donor of official development aid, donating US $ 9.2 billion in 2014. [ 118 ] In 2019, Japan had the fourth-largest diplomatic net in the populace. [ 119 ] Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States, with which it maintains a security alliance. [ 120 ] The United States is a major grocery store for japanese exports and a major source of japanese imports, and is committed to defending the nation, with military bases in Japan. [ 120 ] Japan is besides a member of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue ( more normally “ the Quad ” ), a multilateral security collaboration reformed in 2017 aiming to limit chinese influence in the Indo-Pacific region, along with the United States, Australia and India, reflecting existing relations and patterns of cooperation. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] Japan ‘s relationship with South Korea had historically been strained because of Japan ‘s discussion of Koreans during japanese colonial rule, particularly over the issue of comfort women. In 2015, Japan agreed to settle the comfort women challenge with South Korea by issuing a formal apology and paying money to the surviving quilt women. [ 123 ] As of 2019 Japan is a major importer of korean music ( K-pop ), television ( K-dramas ), and other cultural products. [ 124 ] [ 125 ] Japan is engaged in respective territorial disputes with its neighbors. Japan contests Russia ‘s restraint of the Southern Kuril Islands, which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945. [ 126 ] South Korea ‘s control of the Liancourt Rocks is acknowledged but not accepted as they are claimed by Japan. [ 127 ] Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima. [ 128 ] In 2022, Japan has agreed to a defense agreement with Thailand. [ 129 ]


Japan is the second-highest-ranked asian country in the Global Peace Index 2020. [ 130 ] Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any state in the universe. [ 131 ] The country ‘s military ( the Japan Self-Defense Forces ) is restricted by Article 9 of the japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan ‘s right to declare war or use military coerce in international disputes. [ 132 ] The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and chiefly consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. The deployment of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan marked the first abroad use of Japan ‘s military since World War II. [ 133 ] The Government of Japan has been making changes to its security policy which include the establishment of the National Security Council, the adoption of the National Security Strategy, and the development of the National Defense Program Guidelines. [ 134 ] In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passivity it has maintained since the conclusion of World War II and take more duty for regional security. [ 135 ] Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea and China, have reignited the debate over the condition of the JSDF and its relation to japanese society. [ 136 ] [ 137 ] [ 138 ]

domestic law enforcement

domestic security in Japan is provided chiefly by the prefectural patrol departments, under the oversight of the National Police Agency. [ 139 ] As the central organize body for the Prefectural Police Departments, the National Police Agency is administered by the National Public Safety Commission. [ 140 ] The extra Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads. [ 141 ] The Japan Coast Guard guards territorial waters surrounding Japan and uses surveillance and see countermeasures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, plagiarism, spy ships, unauthorized extraneous fishing vessels, and illegal immigration. [ 142 ] The Firearm and Sword Possession Control Law rigorously regulates the civilian possession of guns, swords and other weaponry. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, among the member states of the UN that report statistics as of 2018, the incidence rates of fierce crimes such as murder, abduction, sexual ferocity and looting are very gloomy in Japan. [ 145 ] [ 146 ] [ 147 ] [ 148 ]


Japan is the third-largest home economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP, [ 149 ] and the fourth-largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing ability parity bit as of 2019. [ 150 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s labor movement effect consisted of 67 million workers. [ 108 ] Japan has a low unemployment rate of around 2.4 percentage. [ 108 ] Around 16 percentage of the population were below the poverty lineage in 2017. [ 151 ] Japan today has the highest proportion of populace debt to GDP of any grow nation, [ 152 ] [ 153 ] with national debt at 236 % proportional to GDP as of 2017. [ 154 ] [ 155 ] The japanese yen is the global ‘s third-largest reserve currentness ( after the US dollar and the euro ). [ 156 ] Japan ‘s exports amounted to 18.5 % of GDP in 2018. [ 157 ] As of 2019, Japan ‘s main export markets were the United States ( 19.8 percentage ) and China ( 19.1 percentage ). [ 108 ] Its main exports are drive vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors and car parts. [ 74 ] Japan ‘s independent import markets as of 2019 were China ( 23.5 percentage ), the United States ( 11 percentage ), and Australia ( 6.3 percentage ). [ 108 ] Japan ‘s main imports are machinery and equipment, dodo fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, and sensitive materials for its industries. [ 108 ] The japanese form of capitalism has many distinct features : keiretsu enterprises are influential, and life employment and seniority-based career progress are common in the japanese work environment. [ 158 ] [ 159 ] Japan has a large cooperative sector, with three of the ten-spot largest cooperatives in the world, including the largest consumer cooperative and the largest agrarian cooperative in the worldly concern as of 2018. [ 160 ] Japan ranks highly for competitiveness and economic exemption. It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016. [ 161 ] [ 162 ]

agriculture and fishery

The japanese agrarian sector accounts for about 1.2 % of the entire country ‘s GDP as of 2018. [ 108 ] only 11.5 % of Japan ‘s country is desirable for cultivation. [ 163 ] Because of this lack of arable bring, a system of terraces is used to farm in humble areas. [ 164 ] This results in one of the global ‘s highest levels of crop yields per whole area, with an agrarian autonomy rate of about 50 % as of 2018. [ 165 ] Japan ‘s belittled agricultural sector is highly subsidize and protected. [ 166 ] There has been a growing concern about farming as farmers are aging with a difficult time finding successors. [ 167 ] Japan ranked seventh in the world in tonnage of fish catch and captured 3,167,610 measured tons of pisces in 2016, polish from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons over the previous ten. [ 168 ] Japan maintains one of the global ‘s largest fish fleets and accounts for closely 15 % of the ball-shaped catch, [ 74 ] prompting critiques that Japan ‘s fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna. [ 169 ] Japan has sparked controversy by supporting commercial whale. [ 170 ]


Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the “ largest and most technologically promote producers of motive vehicles, machine tools, sword and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods “. [ 74 ] Japan ‘s industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5 % of its GDP. [ 74 ] The country ‘s manufacture output signal is the third highest in the world as of 2019. [ 172 ] Japan is the third-largest automobile producer in the world as of 2017 and is family to Toyota, the global ‘s largest automobile company. [ 171 ] [ 173 ] The japanese shipbuilding diligence faces competition from South Korea and China ; a 2020 government enterprise identified this sector as a prey for increasing exports. [ 174 ]

Services and tourism

Japan ‘s service sector accounts for about 70 % of its entire economic output as of 2019. [ 175 ] Banking, retail, exile, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ, – NTT, ÆON, Softbank, Hitachi, and Itochu listed as among the largest in the worldly concern. [ 176 ] [ 177 ] Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. [ 178 ] For inbound tourism, Japan was ranked 11th in the populace in 2019. [ 179 ] The 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Japan 4th out of 141 countries, which was the highest in Asia. [ 180 ]

science and engineering

Japan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly in the natural sciences and engineer. The country ranks twelfth among the most innovative countries in the 2020 Bloomberg Innovation Index and 13th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, up from 15th in 2019. [ 181 ] [ 182 ] Relative to arrant domestic product, Japan ‘s research and development budget is the second highest in the world, [ 183 ] with 867,000 researchers sharing a 19-trillion-yen research and development budget as of 2017. [ 184 ] The country has produced twenty-two Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine, [ 185 ] and three Fields medalists. [ 186 ] Japan leads the universe in robotics output and habit, supplying 55 % of the world ‘s 2017 full. [ 187 ] Japan has the second highest number of researchers in science and technology per head in the world with 14 per 1000 employees. [ 188 ] The japanese consumer electronics industry, once considered the strongest in the world, is in a state of matter of decline as competition arises in countries like South Korea and China. [ 189 ] however, video gambling in Japan remains a major industry. In 2014, Japan ‘s consumer television game market grossed $ 9.6 billion, with $ 5.8 billion coming from mobile gaming. [ 190 ] By 2015, Japan had become the worldly concern ‘s fourth largest personal computer game market, behind only China, the United States, and South Korea. [ 191 ] The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is Japan ‘s national space agency ; it conducts space, planetal, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. [ 192 ] It is a player in the International Space Station : the japanese Experiment Module ( Kibō ) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. [ 193 ] The space probe Akatsuki was launched in 2010 and achieved sphere around Venus in 2015. [ 194 ] Japan ‘s plans in space exploration include building a moon foundation and landing astronauts by 2030. [ 195 ] In 2007, it launched lunar internet explorer SELENE ( Selenological and Engineering Explorer ) from Tanegashima Space Center. The largest lunar mission since the Apollo program, its purpose was to gather data on the moon ‘s origin and evolution. The internet explorer entered a lunar orbit on October 4, 2007, [ 196 ] [ 197 ] and was intentionally crashed into the Moon on June 11, 2009. [ 198 ]



Japan has invested heavily in transportation system infrastructure. [ 199 ] The country has approximately 1,200,000 kilometers ( 750,000 miles ) of roads made up of 1,000,000 kilometers ( 620,000 miles ) of city, township and village roads, 130,000 kilometers ( 81,000 miles ) of prefectural roads, 54,736 kilometers ( 34,011 miles ) of general national highways and 7641 kilometers ( 4748 miles ) of national expressways as of 2017. [ 200 ] Since denationalization in 1987, [ 201 ] dozens of japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger exile markets ; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. The high-speed Shinkansen ( bullet trains ) that connect major cities are known for their safety and punctuality. [ 202 ] There are 175 airports in Japan as of 2013. [ 74 ] The largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport in Tokyo, was Asia ‘s second-busiest airport in 2019. [ 203 ] The Keihin and Hanshin superport hubs are among the largest in the universe, at 7.98 and 5.22 million TEU respectively as of 2017. [ 204 ]


As of 2019, 37.1 % of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 25.1 % from coal, 22.4 % from natural gas, 3.5 % from hydropower and 2.8 % from nuclear exponent, among early sources. nuclear might was down from 11.2 percentage in 2010. [ 205 ] By May 2012 all of the country ‘s nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing populace opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear catastrophe in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some to service. [ 206 ] The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant restarted in 2015, [ 207 ] and since then several other nuclear exponent plants have been restarted. [ 208 ] Japan lacks significant domestic reserves and has a heavy dependence on imported energy. [ 209 ] The state has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency. [ 210 ]

Water provide and sanitation

responsibility for the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, in charge of water issue for domestic use ; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, in charge of water resources development a well as sanitation ; the Ministry of the Environment, in charge of ambient water timbre and environmental preservation ; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, in commission of performance benchmarking of utilities. [ 211 ] Access to an better water reference is universal joint in Japan. About 98 % of the population receives shoot water supply from public utilities. [ 212 ]


Japan has a population of 125.4 million, of which 122.8 million are japanese nationals ( 2021 estimates ). [ 213 ] A small population of foreign residents makes up the end. [ 214 ] In 2019, 92 % of the entire japanese population lived in cities. [ 215 ] The capital city Tokyo has a population of 13.9 million ( 2022 ). [ 216 ] It is share of the Greater Tokyo Area, the biggest metropolitan area in the world with 38,140,000 people ( 2016 ). [ 217 ] cultural minority groups in Japan include the autochthonal Ainu and Ryukyuan people. [ 218 ] Zainichi Koreans, [ 219 ] Chinese, [ 220 ] Filipinos, [ 221 ] Brazilians by and large of japanese descent, [ 222 ] and Peruvians by and large of japanese descent are besides among Japan ‘s small minority groups. [ 223 ] Burakumin make up a social minority group. [ 224 ] Japan has the second-longest overall life anticipation at birth of any country in the world, at 84 years as of 2019. [ 225 ] The japanese population is quickly aging as a leave of a post–World War II pamper boom followed by a decrease in give birth rates. [ 226 ] As of 2019 over 20 percentage of the population is over 65, and this is projected to rise to one in three by 2030. [ 227 ] The changes in demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a worsen in work force population and increase in the cost of sociable security benefits. [ 227 ] A growing act of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless. [ 227 ] [ 228 ] Japan ‘s population is expected to drop to around 100 million by 2060. [ 229 ] Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation ‘s aging population. [ 230 ] [ 231 ] On April 1, 2019, Japan ‘s revised immigration jurisprudence was enacted, protecting the rights of foreign workers to help reduce labor shortages in certain sectors. [ 232 ]


Japan ‘s constitution guarantees full religious exemption. [ 233 ] Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percentage of the japanese population pledge to Shinto as its autochthonal religion. [ 234 ] however, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, preferably than the number of dependable believers. many japanese people rehearse both Shinto and Buddhism ; they can either identify with both religions or describe themselves as non-religious or spiritual. [ 235 ] The charge of participation in religious ceremonies as a cultural custom remains senior high school, specially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. [ 236 ] taoism and confucianism from China have besides influenced japanese beliefs and customs. [ 237 ] Christianity was first introduced into Japan by Jesuit missions starting in 1549. today, 1 % [ 238 ] to 1.5 % of the population are Christians. [ 239 ] Throughout the latest hundred, western customs in the first place related to Christianity ( including westerly style weddings, Valentine ‘s Day and Christmas ) have become popular as secular customs among many japanese. [ 240 ] approximately 90 % of those practicing Islam in Japan are foreign-born migrants as of 2016. [ 241 ] As of 2018 there were an estimated 105 mosques and 200,000 Muslims in Japan, 43,000 of which were ethnically japanese. [ 242 ] other minority religions include Hinduism, Judaism, and Baháʼí Faith, arsenic well as the animist belief of the Ainu. [ 243 ]


Kanji and hiragana signs andsigns The japanese linguistic process is Japan ‘s de facto national linguistic process and the primary language of most people in the area. [ 244 ] japanese writing uses kanji ( chinese characters ) and two sets of kana ( syllabaries based on cursive script and radicals used by kanji ), ampere well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals. [ 245 ] English has taken a major function in Japan as a commercial enterprise and international connect linguistic process. As a consequence, the prevalence of English in the educational system has increased, with english classes becoming compulsory at all levels of the japanese school system by 2020. [ 244 ] [ 246 ] Japanese Sign Language is the primary bless linguistic process used by hard-of-hearing communities in Japan and has gained some official recognition, but its use has been historically hindered by prejudiced policies and a miss of educational confirm. [ 244 ] Besides japanese, the Ryukyuan languages ( Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni ), part of the Japonic linguistic process family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. [ 247 ] few children learn these languages, [ 248 ] but local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. [ 249 ] The Ainu linguistic process, which is a language sequester, is moribund, with only a few native speakers remaining as of 2014. [ 250 ] Additionally, a act of other languages are teach and used by cultural minorities, immigrant communities, and a growing number of foreign-language students, such as Korean ( including a distinct Zainichi Korean dialect ), chinese and portuguese. [ 244 ]


Since the 1947 Fundamental Law of Education, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and junior high school, which together last for nine years. [ 251 ] Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school. [ 252 ] The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. [ 253 ] Starting in April 2016, versatile schools began the academician class with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program ; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted countrywide. [ 254 ] The Programme for International Student Assessment ( PISA ) coordinated by the OECD ranks the cognition and skills of japanese 15-year-olds as the third best in the earth. [ 255 ] Japan is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, mathematics and sciences with the average scholar scoring 529 and has one of the world ‘s highest-educated tug forces among OECD countries. [ 256 ] [ 255 ] [ 257 ] As of 2017, Japan ‘s public spend on education amounted to precisely 3.3 percentage of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.9 percentage. [ 258 ] In 2017, the area ranked third gear for the percentage of 25- to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 51 percentage. [ 259 ] approximately 60 percentage of japanese aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education qualification, and bachelor ‘s degrees are held by 30.4 percentage of japanese aged 25 to 64, the second most in the OECD after South Korea. [ 259 ]


Health care is provided by national and local governments. payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health indemnity system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance platform administered by local governments. [ 260 ] Since 1973, all aged persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance. [ 261 ] Japan has one of the world ‘s highest suicide rates. [ 262 ] Another significant public health return is smoking among japanese men. [ 263 ] Japan has the lowest rate of affection disease in the OECD, and the lowest level of dementia in the developed universe. [ 264 ]


contemporary japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. [ 265 ] traditional japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls ; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo ; and early practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, warlike arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Japan has a develop system for the auspices and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. [ 266 ] Twenty-two sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, eighteen of which are of cultural meaning. [ 99 ]

artwork and architecture

The history of japanese painting expose synthesis and competition between native japanese esthetics and imported ideas. [ 267 ] The interaction between japanese and european art has been significant : for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the nineteenth century in the drift known as Japonism, had a significant influence on the growth of modern artwork in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. [ 267 ] japanese architecture is a combination between local and other influences. It has traditionally been typified by wooden or mire plaster structures, elevated slenderly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roof. [ 268 ] The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of japanese computer architecture. [ 269 ] Traditional house and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space. [ 270 ] Since the nineteenth hundred, Japan has incorporated a lot of western modern architecture into construction and design. [ 271 ] It was not until after World War II that japanese architects made an stamp on the international picture, first with the work of architects like Kenzō Tange and then with movements like Metabolism. [ 272 ]

literature and philosophy

The earliest works of japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man’yōshū poetry anthology, all from the eighth hundred and written in chinese characters. [ 273 ] [ 274 ] In the early Heian period, the system of phonograms known as kana ( hiragana and katakana ) was developed. [ 275 ] The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest extant japanese narrative. [ 276 ] An account of court liveliness is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is frequently described as the world ‘s first novel. [ 277 ] [ 278 ] During the Edo period, the chōnin ( “ town ” ) overtook the samurai gentry as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for exercise, reveals this change in readership and writing, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai ( haiku ) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi. [ 279 ] The Meiji earned run average saw the decline of traditional literary forms as japanese literature integrate western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were significant novelists in the early on twentieth century, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun’ichirō Tanizaki, Kafū Nagai and, more recently, Haruki Murakami and Kenji Nakagami. Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors – Yasunari Kawabata ( 1968 ) and Kenzaburō Ōe ( 1994 ). [ 280 ] japanese doctrine has historically been a fusion of both foreign, particularly chinese and westerly, and uniquely japanese elements. In its literary forms, japanese doctrine began about fourteen centuries ago. confucian ideals remain discernible in the japanese concept of society and the self, and in the arrangement of the government and the structure of company. [ 281 ] Buddhism has profoundly impacted japanese psychology, metaphysics, and esthetics. [ 282 ]

Performing arts

Noh performance at a Shinto shrine performance at a Shinto enshrine japanese music is eclectic and divers. many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and tenth centuries. The popular family music, with the guitar-like samisen, dates from the sixteenth century. [ 283 ] western classical music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, forms an built-in separate of japanese culture. [ 284 ] Kumi-daiko ( corps de ballet drum ) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. [ 285 ] Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and european trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop. [ 286 ] Karaoke is a significant cultural action. [ 287 ] The four traditional theaters from Japan are noh, kyōgen, kabuki, and bunraku. [ 288 ] Noh is one of the oldest continuous theater traditions in the earth. [ 289 ]


officially, Japan has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the Public Holiday Law ( 国民の祝日に関する法律, Kokumin no Shukujitsu ni Kansuru Hōritsu ) of 1948. [ 290 ] Beginning in 2000, Japan implemented the Happy Monday System, which moved a number of national holidays to Monday in order to obtain a long weekend. [ 291 ] The national holidays in Japan are New Year ‘s Day on January 1, Coming of Age Day on the second Monday of January, National Foundation Day on February 11, The Emperor ‘s Birthday on February 23, Vernal Equinox Day on March 20 or 21, Shōwa Day on April 29, Constitution Memorial Day on May 3, Greenery Day on May 4, Children ‘s Day on May 5, Marine Day on the third gear Monday of July, Mountain Day on August 11, Respect for the Aged Day on the one-third Monday of September, Autumnal Equinox on September 23 or 24, Health and Sports Day on the second Monday of October, Culture Day on November 3, and Labor Thanksgiving Day on November 23. [ 292 ]


japanese cuisine offers a huge array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. [ 293 ] Seafood and japanese rice or noodles are traditional staples. [ 294 ] Japanese curry, since its introduction to Japan from British India, is so widely consumed that it can be termed a home dish, aboard ramen and sushi. [ 295 ] [ 296 ] [ 297 ] Traditional japanese sweets are known as wagashi. [ 298 ] Ingredients such as red bean paste and mochi are used. More contemporary tastes includes park tea frost cream. [ 299 ] popular japanese beverages include sake, which is a brew rice beverage that typically contains 14–17 % alcohol and is made by multiple agitation of rice. [ 300 ] Beer has been brewed in Japan since the recently seventeenth hundred. [ 301 ] Green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in forms such as matcha, used in the japanese tea ceremony. [ 302 ]


According to the 2015 NHK view on television receiver watch in Japan, 79 percentage of japanese watch television daily. [ 303 ] japanese television play are viewed both within Japan and internationally ; [ 304 ] early popular shows are in the genres of variety shows, comedy, and news programs. [ 305 ] japanese newspapers are among the most circulated in the world as of 2016. [ 306 ] japanese comics, known as manga, developed in the mid-20th century and have become popular worldwide. [ 307 ] [ 308 ] A large issue of manga series have become some of the best-selling comics series of all time, rivalling the american comics industry. [ 309 ] Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries globally. [ 310 ] Ishirō Honda ‘s Godzilla became an external icon of Japan and spawned an integral subgenre of kaiju films, adenine well as the longest-running film franchise in history. [ 311 ] [ 312 ] japanese animated films and television series, known as zanzibar copal, were largely influenced by japanese manga and have become highly democratic internationally. [ 313 ] [ 314 ] [ 315 ] [ 316 ] many japanese media franchises such as Dragon Ball, One Piece, Naruto, and Demon Slayer have gained considerable ball-shaped popularity, and are among the earth ‘s highest-grossing media franchises. Pokémon in particular is estimated to be the highest-grossing media franchise of all time. [ 317 ]


Sumo wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony traditionally, sumo is considered Japan ‘s home sport. [ 318 ] japanese martial arts such as judo and kendo are taught as contribution of the compulsory junior high school course of study. [ 319 ] Baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the nation. [ 320 ] Japan ‘s peak professional league, Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936. [ 321 ] Since the constitution of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has gained a broad trace. [ 322 ] The area co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. [ 323 ] Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the asian Cup four times, [ 324 ] and the FIFA Women ‘s World Cup in 2011. [ 325 ] Golf is besides popular in Japan. [ 326 ] In motorsport, japanese automotive manufacturers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and victories in series such as Formula One, MotoGP, IndyCar, World Rally Championship, World Endurance Championship, World Touring Car Championship, British Touring Car Championship and the IMSA SportsCar Championship. [ 327 ] [ 328 ] [ 329 ] Three japanese drivers have achieved dais finishes in Formula One, and drivers from Japan have victories at the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in summation to success in domestic championships. [ 330 ] [ 331 ] Super GT is the most popular national serial in Japan, while Super Formula is the lead level domestic open-wheel series. [ 332 ] The state hosts major races such as the japanese Grand Prix. [ 333 ] Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998. [ 334 ] The country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship [ 335 ] and will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Championship. [ 336 ] Tokyo hosted the 2020 Summer Olympics in 2021, making Tokyo the first gear asian city to host the Olympics twice. [ 337 ] The area gained the host rights for the official Women ‘s Volleyball World Championship on five occasions, more than any early state. [ 338 ] Japan is the most successful asian Rugby Union state [ 339 ] and hosted the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup. [ 340 ]

See besides


  1. ^[ɲippoꜜɴ] (

    ) or [ɲihoꜜɴ] (

    ) or

  2. ^[8] In Japanese, the name of the country as it appears on official documents, including the


    ( or Nihon-koku), meaning “State of Japan”. Despite this, the short-form name


    ( Nippon or Nihon) is also often used officially. In English, the official name of the state is just “ Japan ” .In japanese, the name of the nation as it appears on official documents, including the nation ‘s constitution, isor ), meaning “ State of Japan ”. Despite this, the short-form nameor ) is besides much used formally .


General information

  • Japan from UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • Japan profile from BBC News
  • Japan from the OECD
  • Geographic data related to Japan at OpenStreetMap

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